A road to the sky a castle of childhood a trip back in time егэ (2023)



Установите соответствие тем 1 — 8 текстам A — G. Занесите свои ответы в соответствующее поле справа. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.

1. Cabin baggage allowances

2. The most difficult decision

3. Taking your pet abroad

4. Cabin air quality

5. Bus safety initiatives

6. Group travel

7. Public transport service

8. Medical assistance in flight

A. You must meet the entry requirements for your pet dog, cat or ferret for the country you’re going to or coming from. You’re responsible for any fees or charges for your pet if you don’t meet the entry requirements. When you enter or return to the UK from another country your pet needs to meet the entry requirements. These include a microchip, a rabies vaccination, a pet passport or third country official veterinary certificate, a tapeworm treatment.

B. The rate of air change in the aircraft cabin has been shown to be better than office buildings and trains and is comparable to that seen in hospital operating theatres. Fresh air is constantly added to recycled air through very fine filters to remove 99.997% of all dust, viruses, fungi and bacteria. However, the air in the cabin has low humidity levels, which can cause mild drying of the skin, nose, throat, and eyes.

C. The cabin crew are trained in first aid in case of onboard medical emergencies. Our aircraft are equipped with comprehensive medical kits and defibrillators for use by the cabin crew. Some flights have the latest telemetry equipment so that ground based medical staff can assess the patients whilst they are still in the air. Passengers are responsible for the cost of any medical care they may require on the ground. Therefore, comprehensive travel insurance is strongly recommended.

D. The amount of cabin baggage you may bring depends on which service class you are flying. Business Class customers are permitted two pieces of carry-on baggage: one briefcase plus either one handbag. Economy Class customers are permitted one piece of carry-on baggage, either a handbag or a laptop bag. Duty free purchases are also permitted in reasonable quantities. However, liquid restrictions through in many airports may prevent these items from getting security screening points.

E. Planning a trip for ten people or more is often challenging, but the Travel Service can help to simplify the process. Where available, we can take extra care of your group with exclusive check-in desks just for your group and group label luggage tags, for easy identification on arrival. During your flight, your group can enjoy benefits such as sitting together as a group, onboard welcome announcements for your group and meals to meet special dietary requirements.

F. When people ask us what the hardest part of cycling around the world was, it seems they expect us to tell a story about some great hardship suffered underway. Troubles with people. Getting lost. Poor food. But our answer is simply this: the hardest part was making the decision to go. Getting out the door — actually making the decision to go cycling for a weekend — is difficult when you’re also trying to balance the demands of kids, full-time jobs, a full social calendar and so on.

G. Bus lanes are being introduced on key routes across Melbourne to improve service reliability and travel times. Giving buses dedicated road space helps them to avoid delays along their route and also gives people better public transport access to community services and better connections to the train and tram network. The Rural School Bus Safety Program is delivering safer, more comfortable and more convenient bus interchanges for primary and secondary school students in regional Victoria.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

Day had broken cold and gray, exceedingly cold and gray, when the man turned aside from the main Yukon trail and climbed the high earth- bank, where a dim and little travelled trail led eastward through the fat spruce timberland. It was a steep bank, and he paused for breath at the top, excusing the act to himself by looking at his watch. It was nine o’clock. There was no sun nor hint of sun, though there was not a cloud in the sky. It was a clear day, and yet there seemed an intangible pall over the face of things, a subtle gloom that made the day dark, and that was due to the absence of sun. This fact did not worry the man. He was used to the lack of sun.

The man flung a look back along the way he had come. The Yukon lay a mile wide and hidden under three feet of ice. On top of this ice were as many feet of snow. It was unbroken white, save for a dark hairline that curved and twisted from around the spruce-covered island to the south, and that curved and twisted away into the north, where it disappeared behind another spruce-covered island. This dark hair-line was the trail, the main trail, that led south five hundred miles to the Chilcoot Pass, Dyea, and salt water; and that led north seventy miles to Dawson, and still on to the north a thousand miles to Nulato, and finally to St Michael on Bering Sea, a thousand miles and half a thousand more.

But all this the mysterious, far-reaching hair-line trail, the absence of sun from the sky, the tremendous cold, and the strangeness and weirdness of it all-made no impression on the man. It was not because he was long used to it. He was a newcomer in the land, and this was his first winter. The trouble with him was that he was without imagination. He was quick and alert in the things of life, but only in the things, and not in the significances. Fifty degrees below zero meant eighty-odd degrees of frost. Such fact impressed him as being cold and uncomfortable, and that was all. Fifty degrees below zero stood forte bite of frost that hurt and that must be guarded against by the use of mittens, ear-flaps, warm moccasins, and thick socks. Fifty degrees below zero was to him just precisely fifty degrees below zero. That there should be anything more to it than that was a thought that never entered his head.

As he turned to go on, he spat speculatively. There was a sharp, explosive crackle that startled him. He spat again. And again, in the air, before it could fall to the snow, the spittle crackled. He knew that at fifty below spittle crackled on the snow, but this spittle had crackled in the air. Undoubtedly it was colder than fifty below, but how much colder he did not know. But the temperature did not matter. He was bound for the old claim on the left fork of Henderson Creek, where the boys were already. They had come over across the divide from the Indian Creek country, while he had come the roundabout way to take; a look at the possibilities of getting out logs in the spring from the islands in the Yukon. He would be into camp by six o’clock; a bit after dark, it was true, but the boys would be there, a fire would be going, and a hot supper would be ready. As for lunch, he pressed his hand against the protruding bundle under his jacket. It was also under his shirt, wrapped up in a handkerchief and lying against the naked skin. It was the only way to keep the biscuits from freezing. He smiled agreeably to himself as he thought of those biscuits, each cut open and sopped in bacon grease, and each enclosing a generous slice of fried bacon.

He plunged in among the big spruce trees. The trail was faint. A foot of snow had fallen since the last sled had passed over, and he was glad he was without a sled, travelling light. In fact, he carried nothing but the lunch wrapped in the handkerchief. He was surprised, however, at the cold. It certainly was cold, he concluded as he rubbed his numb nose and cheekbones with his mittened hand. He was a warm-whiskered man, but the hair on his face did not protect the high cheek-bones and the eager nose that thrust itself aggressively into the frosty air.

В чем еще вам лгут российские политики

Это невойна, это только спецоперация

Война— это вооруженный конфликт, цель которого— навязать свою волю: свергнуть правительство, заставить никогда невступить вНАТО, отобрать часть территории. Обо всем этом открыто заявляет Владимир Путин вкаждом своем обращении. Ноот того, чтоон называет войну спецоперацией, меньше людей негибнет.

Россия хочет только защитить ЛНР иДНР

Российская армия обстреливает города вовсех областях Украины, ракеты выпускали воЛьвов, Ивано-Франковск, Луцк идругие города назападе Украины.

На карте Украины вы увидите, чтоЛьвов, Ивано-Франковск иЛуцк— это больше тысячи километров отЛНР иДНР. Это другой конец страны.

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Это места попадания ракет 25 февраля. Заполтора месяца их стало гораздо больше вовсей Украине.

Центр Украины тоже пострадал— только первого апреля российские солдаты вышли изКиевской области. Мы непонимаем, какоккупация сел Киевской области итеррор местных жителей могли помочь Донбасу.

Мирных жителей это некоснется

Это касается каждого жителя Украины каждый день.

Тысячам семей пришлось бросить родные города. Снаряды попадают внаши жилые дома.

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Это был обычный жилой дом вТростянце, вСумской области. Засотни километров оттак называемых ЛНР иДНР.

Тысячи мирных людей ранены илипогибли. Подсчитать точные цифры сложно— огромное количество тел все еще подзавалами Мариуполя илилежат водворах небольших сел подКиевом.

Российская армия обстреливает пункты гуманитарной помощи и«зеленые коридоры».

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Во время эвакуации мирного населения изИрпеня семья попала подминометные обстрелы— все погибли.

Среди убитых много детей. Подобстрелы уже попадали детские садики ибольницы.

Мы вынуждены ночевать настанциях метро, боясь обвалов наших домов. Украинские женщины рожают детей вметро, подвалах ибомбоубежищах, потому чтов роддомы тоже стреляют.

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Это груднички, которых вместо теплых кроваток приходится размещать вподвалах. Сначала войны Украине родилось больше 15000 детей. Все они еще ниразу вжизни невидели мирного неба.

В Украине— геноцид русскоязычного народа, аРоссия его спасает

Внашей компании работают люди извсех частей Украины: больше всего сотрудников изХарькова, есть ребята изКиева, Днепра, Львова, Кропивницкого идругих городов. 99% сотрудников довойны разговаривали только нарусском языке. Нас никогда иникак непритесняли.

Но теперь именно русскоязычные города, Харьков, Мариуполь, Россия пытается стереть слица земли.

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Это Мариуполь. Вподвалах ибомбоубежищах Мариуполя все еще находятся сто тысяч украинцев. Ксожалению, мы незнаем, сколько изних сегодня живы

Украинцы сами всебя стреляют

У каждого украинца сейчас есть брат, коллега, друг илисосед вЗСУ итерриториальной обороне. Мы знаем, чтопроисходит нафронте, изпервых уст— отсвоих родных иблизких. Никто нестанет стрелять всвой дом исвою семью.

Украина вовласти нацистов, иих нужно уничтожить

Наш президент— русскоговорящий еврей. Насвободных выборах в2019 году занего проголосовало три четверти населения Украины.

Как улюбой власти, унас есть оппозиция. Номы неизбавляемся отнеугодных, убивая их илипришивая им уголовные дела.

У нас нет места диктатуре, имы показали это всему миру в2013 году. Мы небоимся говорить вслух, инам точно ненужна ваша помощь вэтом вопросе.

Украинские семьи потеряли полтора миллиона родных, борясь снацизмом вовремя Второй мировой. Мы никогда невыберем нацизм, фашизм илинационализм какнаш путь. Инам неверится, чтовы сами можете всерьез так думать.

Это месть задетей Донбасса

Российские СМИ любят рассказывать окровожадных украинских детоубийцах. Но«распятый мальчик втрусиках» и«мальчик— мишень дляракет ВСУ»— это легенды, придуманные российскими пропагандистами. Нет ниединого доказательства подобным страшилкам, только истории сгосударственных российских телеканалов.

Однако допустим, чтоваши солдаты верят вэти легенды. Тогда унас все равно появляется вопрос: зачем, мстя задетей Донбасса, они убивают детей Донбасса?

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8 апреля солдаты рф выпустили две ракеты ввокзал Краматорска, гдечетыре тысячи украинцев ждали эвакуационные поезда. Ракетным ударом российские солдаты убили 57 человек, изкоторых 5— дети. Еще 16 детей были ранены. Это дети Донбасса.

На одной изракет остались остатки надписи «за детей».

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Сразу после удара российские СМИ сообщили овыполненном задании, нокогда стало известно околичестве жертв— передумали исказали, чтоу рф даже нет такого оружия.

Это тоже ложь, вот статья вроссийских СМИ проучения скомплексом Точка-У. Рядом скриншот извидео своенным парадом, накотором видна Точка-У.

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Еще один фейк, который пытались распространить вСМИ: «выпущенная поКраматорску ракета принадлежала ВСУ, это подтверждает ее серийный номер». Прочитайте подробное опровержение этой лжи.

Посмотрите напоследствия удара. Кому конкретно изэтих людей мстили задетей Донбасса?

Если бы Россия ненапала наУкраину, Украина бы напала наРоссию

Нет, ненапала бы.

Посмотрите, вскольких войнах участвовала исколько войн развязала Россия за30лет:

  • 1992–1993— Россия оккупировала Приднестровье
  • 1992–1993— Россия спровоцировала Абхазскую войну
  • 1994–1996— Первая русско-чеченская война
  • 1999–2009— Вторая русско-чеченская война
  • 2008— Российско-грузинская война
  • 2015–2022— Вторжение России вСирию
  • 2014–2022— Российско-украинская война

Украина за30лет неначала ниодну войну. Мы защищали отобранные россией территории, ноникогда неразвязывали войны.

Украинцы сами хотят вРоссию

Это неправда, мы нехотим быть частью России. Мы суверенная страна сбольшой историей. Мы хотим развиваться так, какэто видим МЫ, ане диктатор изсоседней страны.

Посмотрите назахваченный Херсон, изкоторого оккупанты пытаются сделать ХНР:

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Люди выходят намитинги против российских оккупантов, вних стреляют, бросают светошумовые гранаты. Нона следующий день люди выходят вновь.

Россия начала войну, чтобы неподпустить НАТО ксвоим границам

Четыре страны, которые входят вНАТО, уже граничат сРоссией: Латвия, Литва, Эстония иПольша.

Украина невходит вНАТО. Более того, всередине февраля канцлер Германии подчеркнул, чтов обозримом будущем нашу страну ине планируют принимать вНАТО.

На нашей территории нет баз НАТО инет американских биолабораторий.

Путин использует НАТО какстрашилку дляроссиян, нопри этом в2000 году он сам планировал присоединить Россию кальянсу.

Вновь, если вы неверите нам, украинской стороне, проверьте информацию внезависимых международных СМИ:

Как Путин оправдывает вторжение вУкраину. Фактчекинг DW (Deutsche Welle)

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Установите соответствие между текстами AG и заголовками 1-8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.TEST05

1. See a snake crawling down С

2. Natural wonder F

3. Created to protect G

4. Mysterious rocks B

5. Lost city A

6. The really cool place D

7. Go there now

8. Ancient sculptures E

A. Eight thousand feet above sea level, this five-century-old pre-Columbian site was once home to the Incas. Until American historian Hiram Bingham publicized his findings of the area in a book called «Across South America,» the mountain-top ruins were widely unknown to anyone living outside of the Urubamba Valley. Since Spanish colonialists had no idea of Machu Picchu’s existence, Incan architecture and design of the buildings were preserved.

Исторические места и архитектура инков. Lost city

B. Does the arrangement of the 25-ton sandstone blocks at Stonehenge suggest some sort of spiritual prediction? No one really knows. Theories about the nearly 5,000-year- old circular stone structure vary. The most intriguing time to visit Stonehenge is at sunset when a yellow-orange glow can be seen through the magnificent towers’ arches making some people believe that it was originally a place of healing, while others think it was used for ancestor worship.

Stone hedge — место для излечения или поклонения предкам. Mysterious rocks

C. The 1,500-year-old pyramids, located near the town of Merida, may be less popular than their equivalents in Egypt, but they are just as remarkable. Although there are many structures there like the Temple of the Warriors or the Wall of Skulls, the main attraction is El Castillo, the 78-foot, 91-step central pyramid. The absolute best time to travel to El Castillo is at sunset when shadows give the illusion that a large serpent is sliding down the pyramid.

Пирамида El Castillo очень красивая при заходе солнца. See a snake crawling down

D. The Earth’s southernmost point, Antarctica, is the driest and coldest of the seven continents. For a place that is 98 per cent covered in one-mile-deep ice, it is hard to imagine why anyone would want to visit it at all. But there is a strange beauty about Antarctica that is incomparable to anywhere else on the planet. Anyway, while Antarctica has no permanent residents, there are often up to 5,000 researchers working there at a time.

Антарктика – очень красивое место, там работают ученые. The really cool place

E. It is believed that hundreds of years ago the natives of Easter Island carved massive heads out of stone to honor their ancestors. Today, there are 887 «moai,» as the statues are called, which create a mysterious, yet intriguing landscape on this Polynesian island, which is a four-and-a-half hour flight from Lima, Peru. The tallest statue on the island, named Paro, is 33 feet high and weighs 82 tons.

Статуи голов на Easter Island. Ancient sculptures

F. North America’s Red Canyon is 277 river miles long, eighteen miles wide, and one mile deep, and if it doesn’t make your mouth drop with surprise, then you might not be human! Most tourists go there by car and there are plenty of spots along the way to pull the car over and have a look from the top. You can also go down into the canyon’s depths and experience the very heart of the canyon by going rafting on the Colorado River, and even spend the night at a hotel below the rim.

Red Canyon – очень красивое место. Natural wonder

G. Thousands of miles long, the Great Wall of China is the largest cultural object humans have ever built. It majestically snakes through China, winds around rising and falling hills, twists through an enormous countryside, and stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east to Lop Lake in the west. However, the wall was constructed more than 2,000 years ago not to amaze people, but in an attempt to keep out invading tribes from the north.

Предназначение Great Wall of China See a snake crawling down

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Next year I will be undertaking one massive road trip – a trip of a life time – riding through some of the most iconic places in America on a Harley Davidson motorbike. I can’t wait. Really. It is going to be such an amazing experience.But it is, of course, possible to have a fantastic road trip closer to home. To prove it, Moneysupermarket.com have challenged a number of bloggers to go on a road trip and day out costing under £50.

Everyone who knows me, even just a little bit, knows I love to be by the sea. I could I would live and work by the sea so I could see it, hear it and feel it every day. So when I heard about a bloggers road trip challenge there was no option for me than to use it as an opportunity to go and check the sea was still there.But which seaside should I visit? After reading Liberty London Girl’s post on her visit to Wells-next-the-Sea a couple of weeks ago or so, and vowing then that I would go and visit it again soon (it’s been years!), I saw this as my chance. Moneysupermarket gave me some money for fuel, so I planned my route to Wells via Hunstanton, booked a Friday off work, and charged up the camera batteries.

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I did think I should do my road trip by motorbike. But as it happened the day turned out to be quite stormy and the previous evening I got a puncture in my bicycle on the way home from work so I bunged my slashed inner tube and all my other bits and bobs (bike tyre, waterproof, packed lunch, walking boots, camera, cash, sun hat and sun cream – always hopeful)in the boot and off I went… this was my transport, having a quick rest at Sutton Bridge on the way towards Kings Lynn.

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I drove down from Lincoln on the A15 and then A17 to Kings Lynn, where I stopped to get a new inner tube. Next door to Halfords was a McDonalds, and I remembered about all our family road trips when we were kids – my sister and I would always be encouraged to get up early so we could leave for our holiday or our day out before the traffic built up, and as a reward we’d stop somewhere for breakfast on the way. I remember I would choose a Big Breakfast with the sausage meat and scrambled egg if we stopped at McDonalds, or an omelette if it was Little Chef. So for old time’s sake I stepped into the Golden Arches and ordered a breakfast bagel, which I enjoyed far too much while I reminisced (in my head!) about my childhood. Nine times out of ten our family road trips also involved the seaside – or a castle – or a castle followed by the seaside. I wondered if there was a castle I should add to my itinerary…

Anyway, I digress. From Kings Lynn I took the road up to Hunstanton, passed Sandringham, which I hoped to pop to on the way home. Hunstanton is an old Victorian seaside resort much like any other in England really. It as the sea, sand, amusements, holiday parks, promenade, beach huts, deck chairs – you know the sort of place. I decided to go there because I knew I’d get a nice walk along the seafront and there would be a decent tea shop should the weather turn nasty. As it happened I stayed dry, with lovely blue sky over the sea but angry dark clouds and much lightening over land. I spent an hour wandering along the sand, with my Nikon around my neck – which is why this post has turned into a bit of a photo post (the lighting in all of these photos is genuine, no filters – it changed from blue sky to thick black cloud, to bright sunshine, to grey; what an odd day!).

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I got back in the car a few seconds before the heavens opened – excellent timing – and headed along the coast road towards Wells-next-the-Sea, which was the ultimate destination for my road trip. But just a little way after Thornham the car in front of me slowed down to turn into a small road signposted “RSPB Titchwell Marsh”. It was about lunch time and I had my cheese and tomato ketchup sandwiches in the boot, so I followed them in hoping to find a car park with a view. Oh my, am I glad I did! What an absolutely glorious place! I didn’t realise it to start with, but after I’d parked up in the tree-lined car park (no view there!), and having peeked in a couple of hides overlooking the wildlife filled marshland, I found a sign “the beach 1km”. Ah – the sea! Naturally I took the path, and ended up on an absolutely gorgeous and totally deserted sandy beach. Stunning. What a place! And to think that halfway down that path, when the sky got very very black and I spotted fork lightening in the distance (I hate storms!), I nearly went back to my car. I’m so glad I kept going (there’s a Sunday Soliloquy in there!). The sand was soft, there were dunes, the sea was calm, and there was a big pile of building rubble on the beach which interested me a lot. I am so grateful to the driver of the car in front who lead me there – this blogger is now a paid up member of the RSPB as a result, and I will be going back there as soon as I can.

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With just about enough time to still get to my original destination I returned to my car (again missing a massive rain storm, with thunder this time, by just a minute or two), and drove the few miles of winding Norfolk countryside road to Wells-next-the-Sea. I’ve been to Wells a good few times, and love it. It’s a lovely little harbour town with all the quaint features you’d expect, plus many touristy ones too. The harbour and beach are around a mile apart, and the tide leaves the area between as sand for much of the day, marooning the boats where they are left without a hope of getting to open water – it’s a sad and beautiful sight all rolled into one; what good is a sailing boat without water? I also associate Wells with seafood, fresh doughnuts covered in sugar, and seaside rock. On this occasion I chose the doughnuts, naturally.I parked at the beach end of the town and walked along the path into the town, where I got my doughnuts before getting on the cute little 10¼ gauge railwaytrain back to my car.

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By the time I left Wells I only had time to drive straight home, so I missed Sandringham, but I had found Titchwell Marsh so I wasn’t too disappointed. The traffic on the single carriageway roads through Norfolk and Lincolnshire had built up a lot and it ended up to be quite a slow and therefore frustrating journey home; at least it was the way home and not the way there. My road trip ended up just shy of 300 miles, and I had a really lovely day mooching about with my camera, dodging the rain showers and admiring the views. I hope you enjoyed my little photographic tour – next time you’ll have to come with me!

Disclaimer: This is my entry to the Moneysupermarket.com Road Trip Challenge. I received money for fuel (which also stretched to car parking, the train and the doughnuts!) so I could take part in the challenge.

Pixel Jump

Snake Apple Delicious

The Passage

Pixel Quest

Snake classic edition

The Perfect Fighter 1.9

Pixel Quest: The Lost Gifts

Snake Maniac by FlashGamesFan.com

The Pinball Adventure

Pixel White


The Pineapple Game

Pixelated Snakes


The princess and the Dragon

PixelNinja vs BlackNinja

Snatch’ Room

The Quest For Something


Sneak Thief 4

The Quest for the Lost Sheep

Planet Journey

Sneaky Beach

The rainy day


Sneaky Beach Escape

The Raptorian

Planting The Seed

Sneaky In Space

The Red Game 2

Platformicus 1.0 Multi

Sneaky Jungle

The Reincarnationist

Platforms of Pain

Sneaky Pinky — Medallion

The Returning of the Quantum Cat

Platinum car R23

Sneaky Village

The Rhombus

Play School Escape Game

Sneaky’s Escape

The Rise of Atlantis™

Play Smileys Shoot

Sneaky’s Fortunes

The Road to Bethlehem

Play True Challenge

Sneaky’s Halloween Chase

The running mouse

Playground Mahjong

Sneaky’s Journey

The Saddest Zombie


Sneaky’s Journey 3

The Sanzaru Fortress

Plum Humer

Sneaky’s Journey 4

The Scarecrow’s Revenge

Poca’s Adventure

Sneaky’s Journey 8

The Scarlet Room

Pocket Creature

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Beijing

The Sealed Living Room Escape

Pocoyo and Duck

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Chicago

The Search for WondLa

Pocoyo and Friends

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Dallas

The Shotgun Princess: Escape Her House

Pogo Penguin

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Denver

The Smart Room Escape

Point & Click & Destroy

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Dublin

The Stairway

poke the penguin

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Istanbul

The Stairway Mobile

Police & Gangsters

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Las Vegas

The Stone of Destiny

Police Booth Escape

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Paris

The Store

Pompo and Pompa

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Philly

The story of an old house


Sneaky’s Road Trip — Phoenix

The Summoner Saga


Sneaky’s Road Trip — San Francisco

the super game

Pool Practice be

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Seattle

The Tank Builder

Poopee, the little bacteria !

Sneaky’s Road Trip — St. Louis

The Tank Builder — Preview Edition

Pooper Trooper

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Tokyo

The Tarantula Village Farm

Poor pantry escape

Sneaky’s Road Trip — Washington DC

The Test of Wits

Pop Pies 2

Sneaky’s Travels

The Thought Treasury

PoP:TFS Core Game

Sneaky’s Travels 5

The Tower

Popular Girl

Sneaky’s Vacation

The Tower 2

Popular Girl (English)

sniper shot M12

The Truck

Potion Quest


The Turquoise Temple


Sni[p]r 2


Pre Shippin’

Sni[p]r 4

The Wish


Sni[p]r 5

The Wolf Soul




Prehistoric Skater

Snow Attack

Thief Escape

Present Stacker

Snow Ball

Think Thing World — XiaoWu Training Field(EN)


Snow Boy

This is the Only Level

President Office Escape

Snow Queen

Thousand Dollar Soul

Primitive Parking

Snow White Difference

Three Musketeers Secret: Constance’s Mission

Prince Of Brkoosia

Snow White Mahjong

Thrill Bike

Prince of Persia — Mainstream

Snowball Throwdown

Through the Door

Princess and the Magical Fruit

Snowy Girl

Tile Game


SocioTown: The Uninvited Guests


Princess Saver

Sokoban Zombie


Princess Tower


Time Hunters

Princess’ Adventure



Prison Escape


Tinkerzle Colouring Book

Professional Escapist 1

Someone Towed The Car — FML

Tiny Airships

Progression Library

Something Fishy

Tiny Dream

Project D part 2

Sonic Speed Spotter 3

Tiny Landscape — Hidden Objects

Projector Room

Sorry Santa

Tiny Little Robot


Sorteer Piet

Tiny Massive Galaxy

Protect Mission

Soundcheck — fight for your voice (Act 1)

Tipping Point

Protect The Peach


Tipping Point 2

Protector 4


Tipping Point 3

Proteus Puzzle

Spa Escape

Tipping Point 4


space ace delta


Public Transport Race

Space Adventure


Pudding Bear

Space adventure coloring


Punch A Nerd

Space Ballz

Tobe’s Great Escape


Space Bounty

Tobe’s HE: NG


Space Captain McCallery: Flash Landing

Tom and Jerry Puzzle 1

Puppies Day Out

Space Commando: Prelude

Tom and Jerry Puzzle 3


Space Dexterity

Tom TAPper

Putin Fighter

Space Explorer

Tomb Man(古墓淘金)

Putt It In Golf — The Garden Park

Space Fighter

Tomb of Doom Episode 1

Puzzle Craze — Water Falls

space jigsaw

Tombstone Finder

Puzzle Craze Green Nature

Space Jump

Tongue Dangler

Puzzle Room Escape

space mision

Toss A Llama

Puzzle Room Escape

Space Mission (English)

Total Mayhem

Puzzle Sky

Space Mission (Spanish)

Totem differences

puzzle trap

Space Mystery

Toto’s Balloon Ride

Puzzle Trap 4

Space Pixels angol

Toto’s Weekend Clean-up

Puzzle Trap 5

Space Pong


Puzzle Trap 6

Space Rocket

Tower Defense

Puzzle Trap 7

Space Ron

Tower of Death


Space Runner

Tower of Shadows

Puzzles Books Room Escape

Space search

Towing Mania

Pwnage RPG Episode 1

Space Shoot

Toy Plane

Pyramid Raider

Space Shooter

Toys Room Escape


Space Shooter

Tradewinds 2


Space shooter

Tradewinds Legends


space shotgun

Tradewinds Odyssey


space station 3

Trailer Escape


Space Tile Game

Train Traffic Control

Quad Predator

Space War

Transformer Guy

Quentin’s Escape

Space War Game

Transporter Truck

Quest of Legends

SpaceBall 2

Trap World

Question Quest





Trapped in Treasure Cave



Traveller Boy dress up


SpaceShip Combat Force

Traveller Girl dress up

Rabbit Po with you big money

Spaceship Explorer

Treasure Adventure Difference

Rabbit Run

Spaceship Prototype

Treasure Caves 2 Mobile

Rabbit Trap

Spaceship Sniper

Treasure Chase

Rabbit’s Adventure

SpaceSkater 1

Treasure Diver

Rafting kayaking

Spear and Katana 2

Treasure Hunter Pink Monster

ragdoll ninja

Speed Biker Girl

Treasure of Big Totem

Raging Rapids

Speed Oddity

Treasure of Big Totem — the narrative

Rainbow Quest

Sphere World

Treasure of Big Totem 10

Rainy Lady DressUp


Treasure of Big Totem 11

Rajastani Baby

Spider Game

Treasure of Big Totem 12

Raksha Bandhan


Treasure of Big Totem 13

Ramu In Jungle

Spiral Adventures

Treasure of Big Totem 14

Rancho Ice Adventure

Spirited Heart Flash

Treasure of Big Totem 15

Random Gunner Boss Bash

Spiteful Virus

Treasure of Big Totem 16


Splitty 2

Treasure of Big Totem 17

Randy’s Empire

Splitty I

Treasure of Big Totem 2

Ransom for his sister

Spooky Things

Treasure of Big Totem 3

Rat And Cheese

Spooky’s Adventures:Creepy Halloween

Treasure of Big Totem 4


Sports Memory Match Game

Treasure of Big Totem 5

Ravine Climber

Spot The Differences — Caves

Treasure of Big Totem 6

Razor Hockey

Spot The Differences — Forest

Treasure of Big Totem 7


Sprill and Ritchie: Adventures in Time

Treasure of Big Totem 8

RBW room escape

Spring Scene — Puzzle Craze

Treasure of Big Totem 9

Real sim girl 1

Spring Voyage

Treasure of Pirates

Real style kissing

Sprouts Adventure: Teaser

Treasure of the castle

Rebuild the Temple

Square Adventure Part 1

Treasure per steps

Red Asylum

Square Adventure Part 2

Treasure Quest

Red Crystals Escape

Squirrel Adventures

Treasure Seekers: Follow the Ghosts

Red Curtain Room Escape

Squirrel Difference

Treasure Seekers: The Enchanted Canvases

Red Helicopter

Squiz Extreme

Treasure Seekers: Visions of Gold

Red House Hidden Objects



Red Ridding Hood

SSSG — Hawaii

Tree House: Hide & Seek Escape

Red Roses Escape

SSSG — 9 Rooms

Tris the Battle

Red Storm 2: Survival

SSSG — Beach Escape

Tropic Paradise


SSSG — Crystal Hunter Spain

Tropical Island

Refuel And Drive Away

SSSG — Crystal Hunter Thanksgiving

Truck Adventure


SSSG — Echoes of the past

Truck or Treat

Reggae Monkey 2

SSSG — Escape 2.0

Tuk Tuk Bangkok


SSSG — Escape Paradise

Turbo Tanks

Reincarnations Awakening: Chapter 1

SSSG — Forgotten Asylum

Turk mali secret numbers

Reincarnations Awakening: Chapter 2

SSSG — Gold Thief

turkish gold

Reincarnations: Awakening

SSSG — Halloween Crystal Hunter

Turn Based Battle

Reincarnations: The Awakening

SSSG — Island Escape

Turquoise Sky

Renegade Sector Ep. 3: The Turquoise Temple Part 2

SSSG — Jewel Heist

Turret Tower Attack 2

Renegade Sector Ep. 8: The Hive

SSSG — Lost Relic

Turret Tower Titans


SSSG — Money Bags


Rescue at Raijini Island

SSSG — Pinedale

Twin Cat Warrior

Rescue at Rajini Island

SSSG — Stolen Treasure

Twin Cat Warriorn 2

Rescue from deep

SSSG — Stonedale

Twin Moon Galaxy: THK58



Twisted Fairy Tales — Pinocchio

Rescue the child escape

Star Heritage

Twisty Little Passages


Star Rocket

Two Marbles

Resurrection: Genesis

Star Sky

Typing speed biz



UFO adventures

Return of Papulatus

Starfish. Bubble Buster

UFO Escape

Return to Jaunmoku Castle

Stargate — Time to Sacrifice

Ultimate Arm Wrestling League — The Game

Return To Jimmy Nest


Ultimate Beaky

Return to the Archipelago

Stationary Shop Escape

Ultimate Chopper Carnage

Return to the THK58

Statue Room Escape

Ultimate Racing

Return to THK58

Steal Crown and escape 2

ultimate tank C125

Revenge of Angry Tomato

Steal Crown and Escape 2 Remake

Ultra Box

Revenge of the Laser Gang

Steal Crown and Escape 3



Steal Crown and Escape 4

Umang Room Escape


Steal Crown And Escape 4X


Rhino Revenge

Steal Crown And Escape Easy Crown

Uncle Weird Rescue Mission


Steal Crown and Escape Remake

Undead Skater

Rich Adventure

Steal Crown and Escape: Sapphire crown

Under Loop

Rider Santa

Steal Gems And Escape

Underground Escape

Rigdon Bike

Steal Gems And Escape 2


Rigoberto, The Yak

Steal Gems And Escape Christmas

Underwater Adventure Hidden Object


Steal Gold And Escape

Underwater Racing

Road Blocks

Steal Gold And Escape 2

Underwater Similarities


Steal Gold And Escape 3


Robbie To The Rescue

Steal Gold And Escape 4


Robin Hood — A Twisted Fairtytale

Steal Gold And Escape 5



Steal Gold And Escape 6


Robo Spider

Steal Gold And Escape 7

Unearthly Medieval Room Escape


Steal Gold And Escape 7 part 2

Unfair Funfair


Steal the Gem


Robot Adventure

Stealth Prowler

Unleash The Princess

Robot Attack / Planet Antares

Stealthy fox

Unlucky Cloody

Robot in the City — Buy a Comic Book

Steam Cab

Up in the Sky

Robot Lost


Uppy Duppy

Robot Maker

Steel Ball In Space

Urban Rider

Robot out of time

Steve the Drunk

Urban Truck

robot transformer 4

Stevo in Woodbury Woods

Vacuum cleaner

Robot Wars

Stick Adventure

Valentine Day Hearts Search 2

robotic mega V12

Stick BMX Challenge

Valentine’s Day

Rock n’ Roll Girl Dress up

Stick BMX Madness

Valentine’s Day — Hidden Flowers

Rock Paper Shiv

Stick Men Army

Valentine’s Day Escape

RogueDungeons RPG

Stick World

Valentine’s Day Kids



Valentine’s Sprint

Roll the Ball 3

StickMan Castle Defence

Valentines Day — Puzzle Craze

Roller Ball

Stickman’s Adventure

Valentines Day Numbscape

Roller Coaster Adventure

Stinkfly Flight

Valentines doodle

Rolling Hero

Stone Age

Valentines Hearts House

Roman Soldier

Stone Age Mahjong Connect


Romantic Christmas Kissing

Stone Evade

Van Adventure

Romantic Kissing

Stones masters

Van The Brave Elf

Romantic Kitchen:Dream For Date

Stoomboot gemist

Varia Differences


Stop Influenza

Vase Mystery

RONIN Spirit Of The Sword

Stop Jake

Vector Snake

Rooftop Sniper

Storm Truck


Rosie Likes Popsicles

Story of a Certain Village

Viking Ancient history

Rotate N Rest — Valentine’s Flowers

Story Tales

Viking Apocalypse

Row Puzzle — Bell

Strange Hotel Escape

Vila Galé

Royal Bengal Tiger

Strange Invaders

Village Adventures


Strange Lab Escape


Rubber Egg

Strike the Boss

Violet Parking 2

Ruby Loft Escape

Stupid Computer Adventure Part 1

Viper Challenge

Ruby Room Escape

Stylist 2D Stars

virtual shotgun

Ruby Room Escape — Summer


Virtual Villagers: A New Home

Ruby Room Escape 2

Submachine 7: the Core


Ruby Room Escape Christmas

SubMarine Sniper


Ruby Room Escape Halloween

Submarine Wars


Ruby Room Escape: Pink Ruby

Subway simulator LVK 49

Volcano Escape

Rudolph 2


Volley Hurt

Rudolph’s Special Delivery

Sudoku Playtime be

Voltorometer Recharged

Rules are Rules

Suicide SHEEP


Run Chikya Run

Summer Drink


Run Dwooz Run!

Summer Gold Room

Wait 4 Me

Run quickly!

Summoner Saga Endless Chapter 2

Waiters Bubble Jokes

Run Skel Run

Sumo Ball

wall street bull

Run Spy Run


Wandering Willows

Runaway Minetrain

Sunken Fortress

war 3D game

Runnaway Telly

Sunny Island Escape

War at Kitchen


Sunnyland Adventure

War of Thrones

Running Block

Super Angelo



Super Boxer

Warface 2

Rural Runner

Super Buddy 2

Warm Christmas Room Escape

Rush Doll

Super Chick


Rush Hour Bear

Super Chick 2

Warrior Quest

Rush out of Hell

Super Demon Hunter

Watch Paint DRY

Rusty Red Room Escape

super farmer life adventure

Water Gun Shootout

Sacra Terra: Angelic Night

Super Flashio (Mario Bros-Like)

Water Temple 1


Super Gio World

Water Temple 2

Safari Animals Search

Super Math Adventure

Water Temple 3

Safary Racer

Super Mega Balance Party

Water Temple 4

Safes House Escape

Super Pixelknight

Water Temple 5

Safes House Escape: Guests House

Super Race


Safes House Escape: Hotel Rooms

Super Race 2

Waterfalls — Find the Numbers

Safes Room Escape



Safes Room Escape 2

Super Robo Girl

Weapon Trainer

Safes Room Escape 2 Halloween

Super Sloth Bomber

Wedding Cake Shoppe

Safes Room Escape 3

Super Sneaky Spy Guy — 20

Wedding Dress Shoppe

Safes Room Escape 3 Thanksgiving

Super Sneaky Spy Guy — Deja Vu

Wedding Rush

Safes Room Escape Halloween

Super Sneaky Spy Guy — Illusions

ween’s favorites

Safes Room Escape More Safes

Super Sneaky Spy Guy 17 — Ghostly Pirates

Weird Face


Super Strawberry Clock

Weird Idle PRO


Super Strawberry Clock 2

Weirdozo Escape. Chapter 1: Who’s Weirdozo?

Samantha Swift and the Golden Touch


Wendigo Brothers

Samantha Swift and the Hidden Roses of Athena

Superhero Clinton


Sammy The Squid

Superior Room Escape

Whaka’s Adventure

Samorost 1


When I Grow Up I Want To Be A Dragonslayer

Samorost 2

Supr Plummer Bros.

Where Am I

Sample Room Escape

Surf Stud

Where Are You?

Samurai Defense

Surface: Mystery of Another World Collector’s Edition

where is 2011?

Sandra Love


Where is 2012?

Sandy Beach Escape


Where is Big Foot

Sandy Room Escape


Where is Ella

Santa Afraid Present


Where’s My Blankie?

Santa Chops

Survive in Space

Where’s no.1

Santa Christmas Eve Escape


Whindy 2: In The Caves

Santa Face Expressions

Sushi Fishing


Santa Fetch

SushiBox 2

White Zone

Santa Gift Falling Down

Sweet Dog House Escape

Who Moved My Cheese

Santa Gifting

Sweets House 2.5

Whooly 2

Santa Hunting

Sweets House 3

Whooly And The Lost Treasures

Santa Parking

Sweets House 3 Christmas

Wibbles Adventures — City Seige

Santa Secret

Sweets House 4

Wibo the Fabulous

Santa Shooter

Sweets House 5

Wicky Woo in Lava Land

Santa’s coming

Sweets House Halloween

Wild River Jigsaw Puzzle

Santa’s helper

Swift Buggy

Wild Runner

Santaman & His Iced Muffins

Swimming Pool

Wild West Sheriff

Sapphire Room Escape

Swine Flu

Wild World

Sarah Quest: The Pharaoh’s Trap

Sword Quest Adventure

Will you be a BabyMama Soon

Sassy Cat Escape

Swordless Ninja

Will your relationship Last

Saucer Killer

Symphonic Bus Tour

Willian’s Mansion

Savage Food Battle

Synapsis 2

Wind Adventure

Save Earth



Save Planet


Winds of Change

Save the Bird

Tank Attack

Winter ATV

Save the Cows

Tank defense

Winter Dance Sim-Date

Save the dino

Tank War

Winter Season Kissing

Save the dwarves


Winx Club Just Bloom

Save The Frog

Tanks and towers

Winx Club Just Roxy

Save the Island

TAOFEWA — Born of Fire — Manga and Quiz

wipeout with ed edd n eddy

Save Them Goldfish

TAOFEWA — Chibi Manga Coloring — Kenneth & Skeleton

Wise Monkey

Saving The Princess In 60 seconds

TAOFEWA — Manga Coloring Game (Born of Fire 101)

Witch & Wizard


TAOFEWA — Peonys Crazy Potions

Witty Frog

ScapeRide ZERO

TAOFEWA — Peonys Crazy Potions (800×400)

Wizard Defense

Scarecrow’s Folly

TAOFEWA — Skeletal Mummy Hunt

Wizard of dungeons

Scared Night Escape

Tap Tap Jump — Tappi Bear

Wizard Warrior

Scarlet Sails Jigsaw

Target Draw

Wizard’s Run

Scary Escape

Target Words

Wizards Temple

School Maze

Tasty Planet

Wolverine Punch Out

Scooter Master

Taxi Express

Wonderful Fairy Fly


Tealc-Shooter (Final)


Scrapbook Safari

Teddy Bear’s Adventure

Wonderland Cosa Nostra

Scratch the Bounty Hunter

Temple Escape

Wonderland Days Sim Date

Scuba Diving

Temple Guardian 2


Sea Adventures

Temple of the Spear

Wooden House Escape

Sea Dog


Wooden Warehouse Escape

Sea Eater


Woodland Adventure

Sea Fishing


Wooly Jumper

Sea Quiz

Text 4 Dead

World Defense

Sea Survivor

TEXTreme Adventure

World of Fighters

Seabed Adventures

TEXTreme Adventure 2

Worlds Hardest Maze Game Level 1

Seafood Chef

Thailand’s Quest

Worlds Hardest Maze Game LV 2

Searching For Choices: When Do Nice Guys Finish?

Thanksgiving Turkey Survival Mission

Worlds Hardest Maze Game Lv 3


The 19th: Hospital

Wormy Apple

Secret Easter Garden

The 2012 Summer Games You Won’t Find in London

Wrath of Anubis 2

Secret Kiss

The adventure’s of a tennis ball!


Secret Passway

The Adventures of Blocky

X-Fightingpet 1.5

Secret Valentines Hearts


X-mas Tree Escape

Secret Vineyard

The Ant Explorer

Xillopariam — Magic Wars

Secretary Game

The ballad of Ketinetto 3

Xmas Gift Rush


The ballad of Ketinetto 4

XmasTruck Parking


The ballad of Ketinetto 5

Xolga and Mr. Toko 1

Security Driver

The ballad of Ketinetto 6

Xolga and Mr. Toko 2


The ballad of Ketinetto 7

Xolga and Mr. Toko 3

semi-automatic guns

The Ballad of Ketinetto 8

Xolga and Mr. Toko 4

ServeZone Pool

The BankJob

Xolga and Mr. Toko 5

SGAE: 7 part 3

The battle for the new year

Xolga and Mr. Toko 6

Shadow maze

The Bird

Xolga and Mr. Toko 7

Shadow Rising Unleashed

The Black Box

Xolga and Mr. Toko 8

Shadowreign RPG

The Black Irish

Xolga and Mr. Toko 9

Shake-Hunting for bugs

The Blue Platformer: Levels 1.5

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 1

ShellCore Command: Ep1

The Bomb Squad

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 2

Sherlock Differences

The Brave Hussar

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 3


the button game

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 4


The Chestnut Horse

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 5

Shinland Chinese

The Chimaera Stones

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 6

Shinobi Escape

The Chopper Ride

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 7

Ship Escape Game

The Collector

Xolga and Mr. Toko Again 8

Ship Sweeper

The Crazy rabbit


Shoot Pixels

The Cross Adventure Plus

Xtreme Ride

shoot the rose

The Dark Complex


Shooting Bad Man

The Dark Room 1

Yellow House Hidden Objects

Shooting Master

The deep

Yellow Puzzle Escape


the devil monsters

Yellow Puzzle Room Escape


The Devil’s Trip


shotgun X8 game

The Dreamerz



The Dummy IQ Test

you decide

Shuffle Shell!

The Egg Jump

You Find Yourself In A Room

Shuriken Showdown

The End

You Must Survive

Shutter Island

The Endless Drop SE

you’ll run or you’ll die

Sid Squid

The Epic Escape of Carrot

Youda Legend: The Golden Bird of Paradise


The Epic Hard Maze

Youda Survivor


The Evil Bird

Youda Survivor 2

Silent Sanatorium

The expedition of skeleton warriors

Your Quests — Out West

Simon In Wonderland

The Fallen Pig

Your Turn

Sin 60″

the Fog Fall 4

Zaptonia Defense


the Funnies


Sing Escape Hotel

The funny Dragon

Zen Trails

Sinner’s Sacrifice

The Great Adventure

Zero Hour Escape

Sinta: Escape From Ixerron Keep

The Great Automate — Chapter 1

Zero Secret of The Cave

sir jumps alot

The Great Automate — Chapter 2

Zero-gravity Pong

Sixty Seconds To Live

The Great Patriotic War

Ziga’s Robbery 2

Skate For Fun

The Great War

Ziga’s Robbery 3


The Green Bowman

Zimon Monster Hunter


The Hand Of Kalah Kah

Zoco Jonez


The Hardy Boys: Treasure on the Tracks Bomb Defusing Mini-game

Zojas adventure

Sketch Space Hunter

The Hermit Room Escape

Zombie Village

Sketch Space Shooter 2

The Honeymoon is Over

Zombie Balloon Heads

Sketch’s World — The Neighborhood

The House of Keys

Zombie Baseball Madness

Ski Chase

The Hungry Monkey

Zombie Car Clash Madness

Skiing Adventure

The Hunting of The Snark

Zombie Cockroach

Skip Rock

The Infinite Maze

Zombie Gang

Skool Time Race


Zombie Hunter


The Island: Castaway

Zombie Kill Adventure


The Jellybeans (rainbow quest)

Zombie Night Escape

Sky Journey

The Jolly Gang’s Spooky Adventure

Zombie Sniper

Sky Jumper

The Jumper Ball

Zombie Zone

Skylocopter™ 2

The Jumping Frog

Zoo Escape


The Last Aircraft

Zoo Island

slanted’s adventure

The Last Knight


Slap Mubarak

The Last Mech-Druid

Zophie’s Mouse


The Last Transport

Zoptirik Jungle Boy


The Lava Escape


slime castle

The Lava Escape Arcade

Волшебная лампа


The Legacy

Зловещие Ночи (Evil Nights)

Smack-A-Lot: Vampire

The Legend of Phoenix

Пазл: Дракон против людей

Small Safes House Escape

The legend of Zelda: 6 swords

Пламя Ярости (Flames of Fury)

Small Wooden House Escape

The Lost Kingdom Prophecy

Побег из форта

Smarty Pants Quest

The Magic Revolution: The Beginning Of Mystic

Побег из цирка

Smarty Quiz Chocolate

The Magician’s Handbook 2: BlackLore

Солдат против зомби

Smarty Quiz Hollywood

The Magnificent Minionizer Masquerade

Солнце и Луна-2

Smash and Dash

The Maze Adventure 2

Таинственный Охотник (Mystic Hunter)

smile guy

The Maze Game



The Maze Game 2


Smiley Balance

The Mystery of the Mary Celeste



The Mystic Way



The night the starry sky



The Ocean Fantasy



The One That Got Away



The Orc Slayer


Snake + Bomb

The Palace Hidden Alphabet


Task 1 Прочитайте текст и заполните пропускиA–Fчастями предложений, обозначенными цифрами1–7.Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Fire Crews Hunt Escaped Hamster

Eight firefighters have been called in to help find an escaped hamster. Two crews used a chocolate-covered camera and a vacuum cleanerA____ , called Fudgie, at the home of a six-year-old girl in Dunbar, Scotland.

The girl’s mother said: ‘We came down for breakfast and discovered Fudgie had opened the top lid of her cage and had made her way into the kitchen and we think she has goneВ____ .’

The fire crews spent five hours trying to recover the pet after it ran down a hole in the kitchen floor. But, the hamster still refusedС____ .

In the search for Fudgie, the firefighters took the family cooker and gas pipes apart. They also dropped a mini-camera coated with chocolate under the floorboards. They then hoped to take out the hamster using a vacuum cleaner. Despite all their efforts, they failed to find Fudgie.

In the end, the firefighters put another camera down the holeD____ , connected to the screen of the family home computer, to see if Fudgie appeared. Besides, the girl and her parents regularly dropped foodE____ .

At last, after eight days the hamster returned to her cage safe and sound. She crawled from the hole in the kitchen floor early in the morning. It was the girl’s father who first found FudgieF____ .

The girl said that day it was like Christmas morning for her. Her parents added that they too felt extremely happy when Fudgie had finally returned.

  1. through a small hole in the floor

  2. through the hole for the hamster

  3. and locked the runaway hamster

  4. to come out of the hole

  5. to look after the pet

  6. to try and locate the missing hamster

  7. and left it under the floorboards














Task 2

Speed of eating is ‘key to obesity’

If you eat very quickly, it may be enough to increase your risk of being overweight, research suggests.

Osaka University scientists looked at the eating habits of 3,000 people. Just about half of them told researchers that theyA______ . Compared with those who did not eat quickly, fast-eating men were 84% more likely to be overweight, and women were 100% more likely toВ______ .

Japanese scientists said that there were a number of reasons why eating fastС______ . They said it could prevent the work of a signalling system which tells your brain to stop eating because your stomach is full. They said: ‘If you eat quickly you basically fill your stomach before the system has a chance to react, so youD_____ .

The researchers also explained that a mechanism that helps make us fat today, developed with evolution and helped people get more food in the periods when they were short of it. The scientists added that the habit of eating fast could be received from one’s parents genes orE______ .

They said that, if possible, children should be taught toF______ , and allowed to stop when they felt full up at mealtimes. ‘The advice of our grandmothers about chewing everything 20 times might be true — if you take a bit more time eating, it could have a positive influence on your weight.

  1. just overfill your stomach

  2. could be bad for your weight

  3. have a habit of eating quickly

  4. linked to obesity

  5. eat as slowly as possible

  6. put on weight

  7. learned at a very early age














Task 3

Hi-Tech Brings Families Together

Technology is helping families stay in touch like never before, says a report carried out in the US.

Instead of driving people apart, mobile phones and the Internet areA____ . The research looked at the differences in technology use between families with children and single adults. It found that traditional families have more hi-tech gadgets in their homeВ____ . Several mobile phones were found in 89% of families and 66% had a high-speed Internet connection. The research also found that 58% of families have moreС____ .

Many people use their mobile phone to keep in touch and communicate with parents and children. Seventy percent of couples,D____ , use it every day to chat or say hello. In addition, it was found that 42% of parents contact their children via their mobile every day.

The growing use of mobile phones, computers and the Internet means that families no longer gather round the TV to spend time together. 25% of those who took part in the report said they now spend less timeE____ . Only 58% of 18—29 year olds said they watched TV every day. Instead the research found that 52% of Internet users who live with their families go onlineF____ several times a week and 51% of parents browse the web with their children.

Some analysts have worried that new technologies hurt families, but we see that technology allows for new kinds of connectedness built around cell phones and the Internet/ said the report.

  1. than any other group

  2. watching television

  3. in the company of someone else

  4. than two computers in the home

  5. communicated with their families

  6. helping them communicate

  7. owning a mobile














Task 4

The Power of ‘Hello’

I work at a company where there are hundreds of employees. I know most of them and almost all of them know me. It is all based on one simple principle: I believe every single person deserves to be acknowledged,A______.

When I was about 10 years old, I was walking down the street with my mother. She stopped to speak to Mr. Lee. I knew I could see Mr. Lee any time around the neighborhood,В______ .

After we passed Mr. Lee, my mother said something that has stuck with me from that day until now. She said, ‘You let that be the last time you ever walk by somebody and not open up your mouth to speak, because even a dog can wag its tailС______ . That phrase sounds simple, but it has been a guidepost for me and the foundation of who I am. I started to see that when I spoke to someone, they spoke back. And that felt good. It is not just something I believe in —D______ . I believe that every person deserves to feel someone acknowledges their presence, no matter how unimportant they may be.

At work, I always used to say ‘hello’ to the founder of the company and ask him how our business was doing. But I was also speaking to the people in the cafe, and asked how their children were doing. I remembered after a few years of passing by the founder, I had the courage to ask him for a meeting. We had a great talk.

At a certain point, I asked himE______ . He said, ‘If you want to, you can get all the way to this seat.’ I have become vice president, but that has not changed the way I approach people. I speak to everyone I see, no matter where I am. I have learned that speaking to people creates a pathway into their world,F______ .

  1. it has become a way of life.

  2. when it passes you on the street.

  3. when you see him and talk to him.

  4. and it lets them come into mine, too.

  5. so I did not pay any attention to him.

  6. however small or simple the greeting is.

  7. how far he thought I could go in his company.














Task 5

Friendship and Love

A strong friendship takes a significant amount of time to develop. It will not just magically mature overnight. A friendship involves committing oneself to help another personA______ . I believe that, nothing can replace a true friend, not material objects, or money, and definitely not a boy.

I met this guy a couple summers ago who I ended up spending almost all of my free time with. His parents did not approve of our dating because of our age difference,В______ . He had told me the day we met that he had joined the air force and would leave for overseas that coming October. After three months had past, the time came when he had to leave. This left me feeling completely alone.

I turned to my friends for support, but to my surprise,С______ . I had spent so much time with this guy and so little time with them, that they did not feel sorry for me when he left. For so long they had become the only constant in my life, and I had taken them for granted over somethingD______ .

When my boyfriend came back, our relationship changed. I tried to fix all the aspects in my life that had gone so wrong in the previous six months.

This experience taught me that true friendships will only survive if one puts forth effort to make them last. Keeping friends close will guarantee thatE______ . When a relationship falls apart, a friend will always do everything in their power to make everything less painful. As for me, I try to keep my friends as close as I can. I know they will always support me in whatever I do, and to them, IF______ .

  1. but we did anyway.

  2. whenever a need arises.

  3. they did not really care.

  4. whenever they need your help.

  5. could not guarantee would even last.

  6. am eternally grateful for a second chance.

  7. someone will always have a shoulder to cry on.














Task 6

Mobile phones

On New Year’s Day, 1985, Michael Harrison phoned his father, Sir Ernest, to wish him a happy new year. Sir Ernest was chairman of Racal Electronics, the owner of Vodafone,A______ .

At the time, mobile phones weighed almost a kilogram, cost several thousand pounds and provided only 20 minutes talktime. The networks themselves were small; Vodafone had just a dozen masts covering London. Nobody had any idea of the huge potential of wireless communication and the dramatic impactВ______ .

Hardly anyone believed there would come a day when mobile phones were so popularС______ .But in 1999 one mobile phone was sold in the UK every four seconds, and by 2004 there were more mobile phones in the UK than people. The boom was a result of increased competition which pushed prices lower and created innovations in the way that mobiles were sold.

When the government introduced more competition, companies started cutting prices to attract more customers. Cellnet, for example, changed its prices,D______ . It also introduced local call tariffs.

The way that handsets themselves were marketed was also changing and it was Finland’s Nokia who madeE______ . In the late 1990s Nokia realized that the mobile phone was a fashion item: so it offered interchangeable covers which allowed you to customize and personalize your handset.

The mobile phone industry has spent the later part of the past decade reducing its monthly chargeF______ , which has culminated in the fight between the iPhone and a succession of touch screen rivals.

  1. trying to persuade people to do more with their phones than just call and text

  2. that there would be more phones in the UK than there are people

  3. and relying instead on actual call charges

  4. that mobile phones would have over the next quarter century

  5. the leap from phones as technology to phones as fashion items

  6. and his son was making the first-ever mobile phone call in the UK

  7. the move to digital technology, connecting machines to wireless networks














Task 7

London Zoo

London Zoo is one of the most important zoos in the world. There are over 12,000 animals at London Zoo andA______ ! Its main concern is to breed threatened animals in captivity. This means we might be able to restock the wild, should disaster ever befall the wild population.

Partula Snail, Red Crowned Crane, Arabian Oryx, Golden Lion Tamarin, Persian Leopard, Asiatic Lion and Sumatran Tiger are just some of the species London Zoo is helping to save.

That is why it is so important that we fight to preserve the habitats that these animals live in, as well as eliminate other dangersВ______ . But we aim to make your day at London Zoo a fun and memorable time,С______ .

(Video) Night

In the Ambika Paul Children’s Zoo, for instance, youngsters can learn a new love and appreciation for animalsD______ . They can also learn how to care for favourite pets in the Pet Care Centre.

Then there are numerous special Highlight eventsE______ unforgettable pony rides to feeding times and spectacular animal displays. You will get to meet keepers and ask them what you are interested in about the animals they care for,F______ .

Whatever you decide, you will have a great day. We have left no stone unturned to make sure you do!

  1. such as hunting exotic animals and selling furs

  2. as well as the ins and outs of being a keeper at London Zoo

  3. which take place every day, from

  4. because they see and touch them close up

  5. despite the serious side to our work

  6. which demand much time and effort

  7. that is not counting every ant in the colony














Task 8

‘Second Stonehenge’ discovered near original

Archaeologists have discovered evidence of what they believe was a second Stonehenge located a little more than a mile away from the world-famous prehistoric monument.

The new find on the west bank of the river Avon has been called «Bluestonehenge», after the colour of the 25 Welsh stones ofA______.

Excavations at the site have suggested there was once a stone circle 10 metres in diameter and surrounded by a henge— a ditch with an external bank, according to the project director, Professor Mike Parker Pearson, of the University of Sheffield.

The stones at the site were removed thousands of years ago but the sizes of the holes inB______ indicate that this was a circle of bluestones, brought from the Preseli mountains of Wales, 150 miles away.

The standing stones marked the end of the avenueC_____, a 1¾-mile long processional route constructed at the end of the Stone Age. The outer henge around the stones was built about 2400BC but arrowheads found in the stone circle indicate the stones were put up as much as 500 years earlier.

Parker Pearson said his team was waiting for results of radiocarbon dating D_____ whether stones currently in the inner circle of Stonehenge were originally located at the other riverside construction.

Pearson said: «The big, big question is when these stones were erected and when they were removed— and when we get the dating evidence we can answer both those questions.»

He added: «We speculated in the pastE______ at the end of the avenue near the river. But we were completely unprepared to discover that there was an entire stone circle. Another team member, Professor Julian Thomas, said the discovery indicatedF______was central to the religious lives of the people who built Stonehenge. «Old theories about Stonehenge that do not explain the evident significance of the river will have to be rethought,» he said. Dr Josh Pollard, project co-director from the University of Bristol, described the discovery as «incredible».

  1. which could reveal

  2. which they stood

  3. which it was once made up

  4. that this stretch of the river Avon

  5. that there might have been something

  6. that it should be considered as integral part

  7. that leads from the river Avon to Stonehenge














Task 9


Australia was the last great landmass to be discovered by the Europeans. The continent they eventually discovered had already been inhabited for tens of thousands of years.

Australia is an island continentA_____ is the result of gradual changes wrought over millions of years.

B____, Australia is one of the most stable land masses, and for about 100 million years has been free of the forces that have given rise to huge mountain ranges elsewhere.

From the east coast a narrow, fertile strip merges into the greatly eroded Great Dividing Range,C____.

The mountains are merely reminders of the mighty range,D____. Only in the section straddling the New South Wales border with Victoria and in Tasmania, are they high enough to have winter snow.

West of the range of the country becomes increasingly flat and dry. The endless flatness is broken only by salt lakes, occasional mysterious protuberances and some mountainsE____. In places the scant vegetation is sufficient to allow some grazing. However, much of the Australian outback is a barren land of harsh stone deserts and dry lakes.

The extreme north of Australia, the Top End, is a tropical area within the monsoon belt.F____, it comes in more or less one short, sharp burst. This has prevented the Top End from becoming seriously productive area.

  1. that once stood here

  2. that is almost continent long

  3. whose property is situated to the north of Tasmania

  4. whose landscape — much of bleak and inhospitable

  5. whose beauty reminds of the MacDonald Ranges

  6. Although its annual rainfall looks adequate on paper

  7. Although there is still seismic activity in the eastern highland area














Task 10

Scotland Yard

Scotland Yard is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police in London. To most people, its name immediately brings to mind the picture of a detective — cool, efficient, ready to track down any criminal, or a helmeted police constable —A____ and trusty helper of every traveller from overseas.

Scotland Yard is situated on the Thames Embankment close to the Houses of Parliament and the familiar clock tower of Big Ben, and its jurisdiction extends over 740 square miles with the exception of the ancient City of London,B____.

One of the most successful developments in Scotland Yard’s crime detection and emergency service has been the “999 system”. On receipt of a call the 999 Room operator ascertains by electronic device the position of the nearest available police car,C____. Almost instantly a message is also sent by teleprinter to the police station concerned so that within seconds of a call for assistance being received, a police car is on its way to the scene. An old-established section of the Metropolitan police is the Mounted Branch, with its strength of about 200 horses stabled at strategic points. These horses are particularly suited to ceremonial occasions,D____.

An interesting branch of Scotland Yard is the branch of Police Dogs, first used as an experiment in 1939. Now these dogs are an important part of the Force. One dog, for example, can search a warehouse in ten minutes,E____.

There is also the River Police, or Thames Division, which deals with all crimes occurring within its river boundaries.

There are two other departments of Scotland Yard – the Witness Room (known as the Rogues’ Gallery) where a photographic record of known and suspected criminals is kept, and the Museum,F____.

  1. which is contacted by radio

  2. that familiar figure of the London scene

  3. for they are accustomed to military bands

  4. which possesses its own separate police force

  5. which contains murder relics and forgery exhibits

  6. that this policeman will bring the criminal to justice

  7. whereas the same search would take six men an hour














Task 11

Harry Potter course for university students

Students of Durham University are being given the chance to sign up to what is thought to be the UK’s first course focusing on the world of Harry Potter. Although every English-speaking person in the world knows about Harry Potter books and films, few have thought of using them as a guide to … modern life.

The Durham University module uses the works of JK RowlingA______ modern society. “Harry Potter and the Age of Illusion” will be available for study next year. So far about 80 undergraduates have signedВ______ a BA degree in Education Studies. Future educationalists will analyse JK Rowling’s fanfiction from various points of view.

A university spokesman said: “This module places the Harry Potter novels in a wider social and cultural context.” He added that a number of themes would be explored,С______ the classroom, bullying, friendship and solidarity and the ideals of and good citizenship.

The module was created by the head of the Department of Education at Durham University. He said the idea for the new module had appeared in responseD______ body: “It seeks to place the series in its wider social and cultural context and will explore some fundamental issuesE______ . You just need to read the academic writing which startedF______ that Harry Potter is worthy of serious study.”

  1. up for the optional module, part of

  2. to emerge four or five years ago to see

  3. to examine prejudice, citizenship and bullying in

  4. such as the response of the writer

  5. including the world of rituals, prejudice and intolerance in

  6. to growing demand from the student

  7. such as the moral universe of the school














Task 12

Laughing and evolution

The first hoots of laughter from an ancient ancestor of humans could be heard at least 10 million years ago, according to the results of a new study. Researchers used recordings of apes and babies being tickledA______ to the last common ancestor that humans shared with the modern great apes, which include chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans.

The finding challenges the opinionВ______ , suggesting instead that it emerged long before humans split from the evolutionary path that led to our primate cousins, between 10m and 16m years ago.

“In humans, laughing can be the strongest way of expressing how much we are enjoying ourselves, but it can also be used in other contexts, like making fun of someone,” said Marina Davila Ross, a psychologist at Portsmouth University. “I was interested inС______ .”

Davila Ross travelled to seven zoos around Europe and visited a wildlife reserve in Sabah, Borneo, to record baby and juvenile apesD______ . Great apes are known to make noises that are similar to laughter when they are excited and while they are playing with each other.

Davila Ross collected recordings of laughter from 21 chimps, gorillas, orangutans and bonobos and added recordings of three babies that were tickled to make them laugh.

To analyze the recordings, the team put them into a computer program. “Our evolutionary tree based on these acoustic recordings alone showedE______ , but furthest from orangutans, with gorillas somewhere in the middle.” said Davila Ross. “What this shows is strong evidence to suggestF______.”

  1. whether laughing emerged earlier on than humans did

  2. to create the evolutionary tree linking humans and apes

  3. that laughter is a uniquely human trait

  4. that humans were closest to chimps and bonobos

  5. that laughing comes from a common primate ancestor

  6. while their caretakers tickled them

  7. to trace the origin of laughter back














Task 13

Nenets culture affected by global warming

For 1,000 years the indigenous Nenets people have migrated along the 450-mile- long Yamal peninsula in northern Russia. In summer they wander northwards, taking their reindeer with them. In winter they return southwards.

But this remote region of north-west Siberia is now being affected by global warming. Traditionally the Nenets travel across the frozen River Ob in NovemberA___ around Nadym. These days, though, this annual winter migration is delayed. Last year the Nenets, together with many thousands of reindeer, had to wait until late DecemberВ____ .

“Our reindeer were hungry. There wasn’t enough food,” Jakov Japtik, a Nenets reindeer herder, said. “The snow is melting sooner, quicker and faster than before. In spring it’s difficult for the reindeer to pull the sledges. They get tired,” Japtik said.

Herders say that the peninsula’s weather is increasingly unpredictable — with unseasonal snowstorms С___, and milder longer autumns. In winter, temperatures used to go down to -50°C. Now they are normally around -30°C, according to Japtik. “Obviously we prefer -30°C. But the changes aren’t good for the reindeerD___,” he said, setting off on his sledge to round up his reindeer herd.

Even here, in one of the most remote parts of the planet,E__ . Last year the Nenets arrived at a regular summer camping spot and discovered that half of their lake had disappeared. The water had drained away after a landslide. The Nenets report other curious changes — there are fewer mosquitoes and a strange increase in flies. Scientists say there is unmistakable evidenceF___ .

  1. when the ice was finally thick enough to cross

  2. that the impact on Russia would be disastrous

  3. the environment is under pressure

  4. and in the end what is good for the reindeer is good for us

  5. and set up their camps in the southern forests

  6. that Yamal’s ancient permafrost is melting

  7. when the reindeer give birth in May














Task 14

Duration of life and its social implications

The world’s population is about to reach a landmark of huge social and economic importance, when the proportion of the global population over 65 outnumbers children under 5 for the first time. A new report by the US census bureau showsA____ , with enormous consequences for both rich and poor nations.

The rate of growth will shoot up in the next couple of years. TheВ___ a combination of the high birth rates after the Second World War and more recent improvements in health that are bringing down death rates at older ages. Separate UN forecasts predict that the global population will be more than nine billion by 2050.

The US census bureau was the first to sound theС___ . Its latest forecasts warn governments and international bodies that this change in population structure will bring widespread challenges at every level of human organization, starting with the structure of the family, which will be transformed as people live longer. This will in turn place new burdens on careers and social services providers,D___ for health services and pensions systems.

“People are living longer and, in some parts of the world, healthier lives,” the authors conclude. “This represents one of the greatest achievements of the last century but also a significant challengeE___ population.”

Ageing will put pressure on societies at all levels. One way of measuring that is to look at the older dependency ratio,F___ that must be supported by them. The ODR is the number of people aged 65 and over for every 100 people aged 20 to 64. It varies widely, from just six in Kenya to 33 in Italy and Japan. The UK has an ODR of 26, and the US has 21.

  1. which recently replaced Italy as the world’s oldest major country

  2. alarm about these changes

  3. a huge shift towards an ageing population

  4. change is due to

  5. while patterns of work and retirement will have huge implications

  6. which shows the balance between working-age people and the older

  7. as proportions of older people increase in most countries














Task 15

Elephants sense ‘danger’ clothes

St Andrews University researchers discovered that elephants could recognise the degree of danger posed by various groups of individuals. The study found that African elephants always reacted with fearA______ previously worn by men of the Maasai tribe. They are known to demonstrate their courage byВ______ .

The elephants also responded aggressively to red clothing, which defines traditional Maasai dress.

However, the elephants showed a much milder reaction to clothing previously worn by the Kamba people,С______ and pose little threat.

The researchers first presented elephants with clean, red clothing and with red clothing that had been worn for five days byD______ .

They revealed that Maasai-smelt clothing motivated elephants to travel significantly faster in the first minute after they moved away.

They then investigated whether elephants could also use the colour of clothing as a cue to classify a potential threat and found the elephants reacted with aggressionE______ . This suggested that they associated the colour red with the Maasai.

The researchers believe the distinction in the elephants’ emotional reaction to smell and colour might be explained byF______ . They might be able to distinguish among different human groups according to the level of risk they posed.

«We regard this experiment as just a start to investigating precisely how elephants ‘see the world’, and it may be that their abilities will turn out to equal or exceed those of our closer relatives, the monkeys and apes,» researchers added.

  1. either a Maasai or a Kamba man

  2. who do not hunt elephants

  3. when they detected the smell of clothes

  4. who carried out the research

  5. the amount of risk they sense

  6. spearing elephants

  7. when they spotted red but not white cloth














Task 16

Culture and customs

In less than twenty years, the mobile telephone has gone from being rare, expensive equipment of the business elite to a pervasive, low-cost personal item. In many countries, mobile telephonesA___ ; in the U.S., 50 per cent of children have mobile telephones. In many young adults’ households it has supplanted the land-line telephone. The mobile phone isВ___ , such as North Korea.

Paul Levinson in his 2004 book Cellphone argues that by looking back through history we can find many precursors to the idea of people simultaneously walking and talking on a mobile phone. Mobile phones are the next extension in portable media, that now can beС___ into one device. Levinson highlights that as the only mammal to use only two out of our four limbs to walk, we are left two hands freeD___ — like talking on a mobile phone.

Levinson writes that “Intelligence and inventiveness, applied to our need to communicate regardless of where we may be, led logically and eventually to telephones that weE___ .”

Given the high levels of societal mobile telephone service penetration, it is a key means for peopleF___ . The SMS feature spawned the «texting» sub-culture. In December 1993, the first person-to-person SMS text message was transmitted in Finland. Currently, texting is the most widely-used data service; 1.8 billion users generated $80 billion of revenue in 2006.

  1. to perform other actions

  2. outnumber traditional telephones

  3. to communicate with each other

  4. combined with the Internet

  5. to serve basic needs

  6. banned in some countries

  7. carry in our pockets














Task 17

My Stage

My family moved to Rockaway, New Jersey in the summer of 1978. It was there that my dreams of stardom began.

I was nine years old. Heather Lambrix lived next door, and she and I became best friends. I thought she was so luckyA___ . She took tap and jazz and got to wear cool costumes with bright sequences and makeup and perform on stage. I went to all of her recitals andВ___ .

My living room and sometimes the garage were my stage. I belonged to a cast of four, which consisted of Heather, my two younger sisters, Lisa and Faith, and I. Since I was the oldest and the bossiest, I was the director. Heather came with her own costumesС___ . We choreographed most of our dance numbers as we went along. Poor Faith … we would throw her aroundD___ . She was only about four or five … and so agile. We danced around in our bathing suits to audiocassettes and records from all the Broadway musicals. We’d put a small piece of plywood on the living room carpet,E___ . And I would imitate her in my sneakers on the linoleum in the hall. I was a dancer in the making.

My dad eventually converted a part of our basement into a small theater. He hung two “spotlights” and a sheet for a curtain. We performed dance numbers to tunes like “One” and “The Music and the Mirror” from A Chorus Line. I sang all the songs from Annie. I loved to sing,F___. I just loved to sing. So I belted out songs like “Tomorrow”, “Maybe” and “What I Did For Love.” I knew then, this is what I wanted to do with my life.

  1. like she was a rag doll

  2. whether I was good at it or not

  3. wished I, too, could be on stage

  4. and I designed the rest

  5. and I was star struck

  6. so Heather could do her tap routine

  7. because she got to go to dance lessons














Task 18

Cat’s punctuality

Sergeant Podge, a Norwegian Forest Cat, disappears from his owner’s home in a small town in Kent, every night. But what baffles his owner, Liz Bullard, mostly is the fact that the next morning, the 12-year-old cat always pops up in exactly the same place,A___ . And every morning Ms. Bullard takes her son to school before collecting Sergeant Podge.

She said that the routine had set in earlier this year, when Sergeant Podge disappeared one day. Ms. Bullard spent hours telephoning her neighboursВ___ .

An elderly woman living about one and a half miles away called back to inform Ms. Bullard that she had found a cat matching Sergeant Podge’s description. Ms. Bullard picked him up but within days he vanished from sight again. She rang the elderly womanС___ .

She said a routine has now become established, where each morning she takes her son to school before driving to collect Sergeant PodgeD___ .

It is thought Sergeant Podge walks across a golf course every night to reach his destination.

Ms. Bullard said: “If it’s raining he may be in the bush but he comes running if I clap my hands.” All she has to do is open the car passenger door from the inside for Sergeant Podge to jump in.

Ms. Bullard also makes the trip at weekends and during school holidays —E___ .

She does not know why, after 12 years, Sergeant Podge has begun the routine but explained that another woman who lived nearby used to feed him sardines, and that he may beF___ .

His owner doesn’t mind his wandering off at night as long as she knows where to collect him.

  1. on the look-out for more treats

  2. from the pavement between 0800 and 0815 GMT

  3. to discover Sergeant Podge was back outside her home

  4. on a pavement about one and a half miles (2.4km) away

  5. to identify if anyone had bumped into him

  6. when her son is having a lie-in

  7. collected by car every morning














Task 19

Do you speak English?

When I arrived in England I thought I knew English. After I’d been here an hour I realized that I did not understand one word. In the first week I picked up a tolerable working knowledge of the language and the next seven years convinced me gradually but thoroughly that IA______ , let alone perfectly. This is sad. My only consolation being that nobody speaks English perfectly.

Remember that those five hundred words an average Englishman uses areB______ . You may learn another five hundred and another five thousand and yet another fifty thousand and still you may come across a further fifty thousandC______ .

If you live here long enough you will find out to your greatest amazement that the adjective nice is not the only adjective the language possesses, in spite of the fact thatD______ . You can say that the weather is nice, a restaurant is nice, Mr. Soandso is nice, Mrs. Soandso’s clothes are nice, you had a nice time,E______ .

Then you have to decide on your accent. The easiest way to give the impression of having a good accent or no foreign accent at all is to hold an unlit pipe in your mouth, to mutter between your teeth and finish all your sentences with the question: “isn’t it?” People will not understand much, but they are accustomed to that and they will get aF______ .

  1. whatever it costs

  2. most excellent impression

  3. you have never heard of before, and nobody else either

  4. in the first three years you do not need to learn or use any other adjectives

  5. would never know it really well

  6. far from being the whole vocabulary of the language

  7. and all this














Task 20

Before the Hubble Space Telescope was launched, scientists thought they knew the universe. They were wrong.

The Hubble Space Telescope has changed many scientists’ view of the universe. The telescope is named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble,A______ .

He established that many galaxies exist and developed the first system for their classifications.

In many ways, Hubble is like any other telescope. It simply gathers light. It is roughly the size of a large school bus. What makes Hubble special is not what it is,B______ .

Hubble was launched in 1990 from the “Discovery” space shuttle and it is about 350 miles above our planet,C______ .

It is far from the glare of city lights, it doesn’t have to look through the air,D______ .

And what a view it is! Hubble is so powerful it could spot a fly on the moon. Yet in an average orbit, it uses the same amount of energy as 28100-watt light bulbs. Hubble pictures require no film. The telescope takes digital imagesE______ .

Hubble has snapped photos of storms on Saturn and exploding stars. Hubble doesn’t just focus on our solar system. It also peers into our galaxy and beyond. Many Hubble photos show the stars that make up the Milky Way galaxy. A galaxy is a city of stars.

Hubble cannot take pictures of the sun or other very bright objects, because doing so could “fry” the telescope’s instruments, but it can detect infrared and ultra violet lightF______ .

Some of the sights of our solar system that Hubble has glimpsed may even change the number of planets in it.

  1. which is above Earth’s atmosphere.

  2. which are transmitted to scientists on Earth.

  3. which is invisible to the human eye.

  4. who calculated the speed at which galaxies move.

  5. so it has a clear view of space.

  6. because many stars are in clouds of gas.

  7. but where it is.














Task 21

The science of sound, or acoustics, as it is often called, has been made over radically within a comparatively short space of time. Not so long ago the lectures on sound in colleges and high schools dealt chiefly with the vibrations of such things as the air columns in organ pipes. Nowadays, however, thanks chiefly to a number of electronic instruments engineers can study sounds as effectivelyA____ . The result has been a new approach to research in sound. Scientists have been able to make far-reaching discoveries in many fields of acousticsB_____ .

Foremost among the instruments that have revolutionized the study of acoustics are electronic sound-level meters also known as sound meters and sound-intensity meters. These are effective devices that first convert sound waves into weak electric signals, then amplify the signals through electronic meansC______ . The intensity of a sound is measured in units called decibels. “Zero” sound is the faintest soundD______ . The decibel measures the ratio of the intensity of a given sound to the standard “zero” sound. The decibel scale ranges from 0 to 130. An intensity of 130 decibels is perceived not only as a sound, but alsoE______ . The normal range of painlessly audible sounds for the average human ear is about 120 decibels. For forms of life other than ourselves, the range can be quite different.

The ordinary sound meter measures the intensity of a given sound, rather than its actual loudness. Under most conditions, however, it is a quite good indicator of loudness. Probably the loudest known noise ever heard by human ears was that of the explosive eruption in August, 1883, of the volcano of Krakatoa in the East Indies. No electronic sound meters, of course, were in existence then, but physicists estimate that the sound at its source must have had an intensity of 190 decibels,F______ .

  1. and finally measure them.

  2. since it was heard 3,000 miles away.

  3. and they have been able to put many of these discoveries to practical use.

  4. that loud sound is of high intensity.

  5. as they study mechanical forces.

  6. as a painful sensation in the ear.

  7. that the unaided human ear can detect.














Task 22


Chocolate is made from a number of raw and processed foods produced from the seeds of tropical cacao trees. Cacao has been cultivated inA______ at least 3000 years. For most of this time it was made into a drink called, in translation — “bitter water”. This is becauseВ______ to be fermented to develop a palatable flavour. After fermentation the beans are dried and roasted and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. These are then ground and liquefied into chocolate liquor. The liquor is then processed into cocoa solids or cocoa butter. Pure chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and butter in different proportions. Much ofС______ with added sugar. Milk chocolate is sweetened chocolate that additionally contains either milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate on the otherD______ is therefore not a true chocolate. Chocolate contains theobromine and phenethylamine which have physiological effects on the body. It is similar to serotonin levels in the brain. Scientists claimE______ , can lower blood pressure. Recently, dark chocolate has also been promoted for its health benefits. But pet owners should remember that the presence of theobromine makes it toxic to cats and dogs. Chocolate is now oneF______ , although 16 of the top 20 chocolate consuming countries are in Europe. Also interesting is that 66% of world chocolate is consumed between meals.

  1. the chocolate consumed today is made

  2. that chocolate, eaten in moderation

  3. central and southern America for

  4. of the world’s most popular flavours

  5. hand contains no cocoa solids and

  6. cacao seeds are intensely bitter and have

  7. many countries worldwide at














Task 23

Reality TV

Reality TV seems to dominate broadcasting these days. But what is it, how did it emerge and why on earth is it so popular? The first question is easily answered. Reality TVA______ presents unscripted, dramatic or humorous situations or events. It can involve celebritiesВ______ of the public. Reality TV has been gradually growing in importance for over 60 years. “Candid Camera” — the show that filmed ordinary people reacting to set ups and pranks — started in 1948. Some people, however, believe it was the Japanese with their awful shows in the 1980s and 90s that brought reality TV to centre stage. Others believeС______ that is called “Big Brother” was the show that spawned the reality TV age. But why are the shows so popular? Different theories come to life. Some believe that it isD______ we like to watch horrible behaviour: the same instinct that once inspired the ancient Romans to go and watch gladiators destroy each other at the Coliseum. Others suggest a kind of voyeurism is involved there — an unhealthy curiosity to spy on other people’s lives.

Whatever the real reason — the trend seems to have already peaked. A lot of such showsE______ or are expected to go in the near future. And the replacement seems to be talents shows — watching competitions in dance, singing and general entertainment. Does it mean that people are changing? It is too early to say. Most agree that theseF______ .

  1. due to basic human instinct that

  2. is still early to judge

  3. are simply the cycles of fashion

    (Video) ЕГЭ 2020 АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. Phrasal verbs

  4. but more usually the stars are members

  5. that the television phenomenon

  6. is a type of programme that

  7. seem to have disappeared














Task 24

Mikhail Lomonosov and Moscow State University

Mikhail Lomonosov was one of the intellectual titans of XVIII century. His interests ranged from history, rhetoric, art and poetryA______ . Alexander Pushkin described him asВ______ , whose lifelong passion was learning.

Lomonosov’s activity is a manifestation of the enormous potential of the Russian scientific community. Peter I reformed Russia, which allowed the country to reach the standard ofС______ many spheres. Great importance was placed on education. St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, founded by Peter I, established a university and a grammar school to educate intellectuals and researchers the country needed; however, these educational establishments could not fulfill the task they took on. It was Michail LomonosovD______ of establishing a university in Moscow. An influential courtier and theE______ Count Shuvalov supported Lomonosov’s plans for a new university and presented them to the Empress.

In 1755, on 25 January-St. Tatiana’s Day according to the Russian Orthodox Church calendar — Elizaveta signed the decree that a university should be founded in Moscow. The opening ceremony took place on 26 April, when Elizaveta’s coronation day was celebrated. Since 1755 25 January and 26 AprilF______ Moscow University; the annual conference where students present the results of their research work is traditionally held in April.

  1. who suggested in his letter to Count Shuvalov the idea

  2. to mechanics, chemistry and mineralogy

  3. a person of formidable willpower and keen scientific mind

  4. favourite of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, the patron of arts and science

  5. the contemporary European powers in

  6. are marked by special events and festivities at

  7. famous among all educated people














Task 25

Window Shopping

The day would be spent with my best friends Kath and Kate. We are actually three Catherines (by birth spelt with a C),A______ we are all K’s: Kat (that’s me), Kath and Kate — the 3K Window Shopping gang!

Window shopping is simply wonderful. You can look at any outfit. You can try onВ______ not a single item on sale for which the price is a problem. You will try something on, ponder, pout, twirl, think hard, check yourself in the mirror one last time and finally reflectС______ right for you! The highlight of this regular adventure however, is generally the 3K chocolate and ice cream break in the Shopping Centre’s top floor cafii Of course we do not believe that we are wasting anyone’s time. We doD______ as well, but a reliable equation for us is — 3Ks+shopping mall = a good time.

ButE______ out to be especially memorable. One of the stores had a questionnaire lottery with the first prize being a voucher worth £200. We filled in the question forms while in the cafiiand returned to the store by their 2.00pm deadline. Kate won the first prize but we had decided in advance that if any of us won something, we would share equally: All for one К and one for all! At this point our morning of window shopping paid off. We completedF______ slightly less than 10 minutes: three skirts, three hats and three belts and three very OK, K’s.

  1. not like to spend our time

  2. that it’s probably not quite

  3. that particular day turned

  4. our real shopping in

  5. sometimes go shopping for real

  6. anything you want and there is

  7. but when we are together














Task 26

The Hotel

“Have you stayed with us before sir?” asked the receptionist. His accent sounded middle-European; Czech possibly or Polish. Actually I hadn’t stayed at this particular hotel beforeA______ to many others from the same chain that I had stayed at. “No — first time” I replied with unnecessary brevity. The thing is I always feelВ______ rather than treated as an individual. Every word that I was about to hear, I had heard before — delivered no doubt from the depths of a tourism and hospitality course. “Welcome to Newcastle sir. Is this your first visit to our city? Can I trouble you to complete this form? Actually the first two lines and the signature at the bottom will do. Would you likeС______ , Sir? This will automatically unlock room facilities like mini-bar and telephone and any other extras you may require. Can I see your passport sir?” The questions and informationD______ responses were actually required and I handed over my passport, credit card and partly filled out form. I was tempted to write under name and address “Donald Duck, Duck Towers, Disney Street” —E______ ever read the form again. But being a creature of habit I wrote my real name and address. While my card was being processed I looked across the reception area through the wall height windows to the beautiful River Tyne. A wave of nostalgia came over me. It was good to be back. I found myself thinking about her again and wonderingF______ a voice broke in: “It’s a plastic key card sir. You also need it to activate the lift and when you get to your room, plug it into the switch on the left as you open the door. It will automatically supply electricity to the room. Any help with your baggage? No? Then enjoy your stay”. The accomplished young Pole smiled as he delivered the final command and duly processed, I proceeded to the card activated lift.

  1. me to take a print of your credit card

  2. points poured out smoothly, no verbal

  3. if I would even see her when

  4. although it seemed virtually identical

  5. so sure was I that nobody would

  6. me to help you with your luggage

  7. as if I am being processed like a product















Task 27

Lindsay Wildlife Museum

Lindsay Wildlife Museum is a unique natural history and environmental education centre where visitors can listen to the cry of a red-tailed hawk, go eye-to-eye with a grey fox and watch a bald eagle eat lunch. More than fifty species of native California animals are on exhibit here.

Thousands of school children learn about the natural environment in their classroomsA____ of the museum. Nature- and science- oriented classes and trips are offered for adults and children. More than 600 volunteers help to feed and care for wild animals,В_____. Volunteers are active in the museum’s work, contributingС____.

The museum was founded by a local businessman, Alexander Lindsay. Sandy, as friends knew him, started teaching neighborhood children about nature in the early 1950s. Initially housed in an elementary school, the museum began offering school-aged children summer classes,D____.

After nearly a decade of the museum operation, it became apparentE____. With a new 5,000 square-foot home, the museum could now develop and display a permanent collection of live, native wildlife and natural history objects. People came to the museum for help with wild animalsF___ urban growth. In response, a formal wildlife rehabilitation programme— the first of its kind in the United States of America— began in 1970.

  1. that a permanent, year-round site was necessary

  2. as well as field trips focused on the natural world

  3. many hours of service to wildlife care and fundraising

  4. that had been injured or orphaned because of intense

  5. that needed public attention and a new building

  6. as well as teach children and adults about nature

  7. through education programmes and on-site tours














Task 28

America’s fun place on America’s main street

If any city were considered a part of every citizen in the United States, it would be Washington, DC. To many, the Old Post Office Pavilion servesA____. If you are in the area, be a part of it all by visiting us— orВ____. Doing so will keep you aware of the latest musical events, great happenings and international dining, to say the least.

Originally built in 1899, the Old Post Office Pavilion embodied the modern spiritС____. Today, our architecture and spirit of innovation continues to evolve and thrive. And, thanks to forward-thinking people, you can now stroll through the Old Post Office Pavilion and experience bothD____ with international food, eclectic shopping and musical events. All designed to entertain lunch, mid-day and after work audiences all week long.

A highlight of the Old Post Office Pavilion is its 315-foot Clock Tower. Offering a breath-taking view of the city, National Park Service Rangers give free Clock Tower tours every day! Individuals and large tour groups are all welcome. The Old Post Office Clock Tower also proudly houses the official United States Bells of Congress, a gift from EnglandE____. The Washington Ringing Society sounds the Bells of Congress every Thursday evening and on special occasions.

Visit the Old Post Office Pavilion, right on Pennsylvania Avenue between the White House and the Capitol. It is a great opportunityF____, this is a landmark not to be missed no matter your age.

  1. that are offered to the visitors

  2. its glamorous past and fun-filled present

  3. as a landmark reminder of wonderful experiences

  4. by joining our e-community

  5. that was sweeping the country

  6. celebrating the end of the Revolutionary War

  7. to learn more about American history














Task 29

Number of teenagers with Saturday job drops

The number of teenagers with Saturday jobs has dropped. Young people do not acquire any experience for their CVs— a crucial step towards getting full-time work. The proportion of teenagers combining part-time jobs with school or college has slumped from 40% in the 1990s to around 20% now, according to the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES), a government agency. Latest figures show that onlyA____ in 1997.

The trend is not just recession-related, but the result of an increasing expectationВ____ well as a falling number of Saturday jobs, according to the report. Many of the jobs that young people do, such as bar work, are in long-term decline, and are forecast to decline further over the next decade.

«Recruiters place significant emphasis on experienceС____,» the report says. Word of mouth is the most common way to get a job,D_____ young people are unable to build up informal contacts, it adds.

Ms. Todd, a commissioner at the UKCES, said: «There’s more emphasis on doing well at school, young people are finding less time to do what they would have done a few years ago.» «I think it’s also the changing structure of the labour market. Retail is still a big employer,E____. As a consequence, we need to think about how we get young people the work experience they need.»

A new initiative to send employees into state schools to talk about their careers was also launched recently. The scheme, Inspiring the Future, is meant to give state schoolchildren access to the kind of careers advice that private schools offer. The deputy prime minister said: «The power of making connectionsF____ and can be life-changing.»

  1. that it was researching the system of funding education after 16

  2. 260,000 teenagers have a Saturday job compared with 435,000

  3. but young people are leaving education increasingly less experienced

  4. that inspire young people is immeasurable

  5. but an increasing shortage of work experience means

  6. that young people should stay on at school, as

  7. but a lot more of it is being done online














Task 30

Lots of fun in Cardiff

As you would expect of a capital city, Cardiff offers a huge choice of exciting sport and entertainment throughout the year.

Every March the city celebrates St. David, Wales’ patron saint, with parades and music. August sees the International Festival of Street Entertainment, with the heart of the cityA____. Family fun days in the parks and at the waterfront are part of this sensational summer scene. Brass and military bands are often to be seen on Cardiff s streets. Between May and October the world’s only seagoing paddle steamer cruises from Cardiff’s seaside resort.

In autumn the fun continues with Cardiff s Festival of the ArtsВ_____. Music is at the centre of the festival, with international starsС____. Christmas in Cardiff is full of colour and festivities. The truly spectacular Christmas illuminations have earned Cardiff the title of «Christmas City». And there is entertainment for all the family,D____.

There is always something happening in Cardiff. The BBC National Orchestra of Wales and Welsh National Opera can both be heard here. Cardiff previews many London «West End» showsE_____.

The city’s range of accommodation facilities is truly impressive,F____. And with a city as compact as Cardiff there are places to stay in all price brackets.

  1. from international names to family-run guest houses

  2. joining some of Wales’ most talented musicians

  3. having their summer holidays in Cardiff

  4. that usually attract hundreds of theatre lovers

  5. which features music, film, literature and graphics

  6. from pantomimes to Christmas tree celebrations

  7. beating with dance and theatrical performances














Task 31

Changing image

For more than 200 years Madame Tussaud’s has been attracting tourists from all over the world and it remains just as popular as it ever was. There are many reasons for this enduring success, but at the heart of it all is good, old-fashioned curiosity.

Madame Tussaud’s original concept has entered a brand new era of interactive entertainmentA_____. Today’s visitors are sent on a breathtaking journey in black cabs through hundreds of years of the past. They have a unique chance to see the great legends of history,В_____ of politics.

Much of the figure construction technique follows the traditional pattern, beginning whenever possible with the subjectС_____ and personal characteristics. The surprising likeliness of the wax portraits also owes much to many starsD_____, either by providing their stage clothes, or simply giving useful advice.

The museum continues constantly to add figuresE____ popularity. The attraction also continues to expand globally with established international branches in New York, Hong Kong, Amsterdam and many other cities. And they all have the same rich mix of interaction, authenticity and local appeal.

The museum provides a stimulating and educational environment for schoolchildren. Its specialists are working together with practicing teachers and educational advisors to create different programmes of activities,F____.

  1. as well as resources on art, technology and drama

  2. as well as the idols of popular music and the icons

  3. who is sitting to determine exact measurements

  4. ranging from special effects to fully animated figures

  5. ranging from all kinds of souvenirs to sports equipment

  6. that reflect contemporary public opinion and celebrity

  7. who are eager to help in any possible way they can














Task 32

Saturday jobs: memories of weekend working

Research has shown a sharp fall in the number of teenagers who do Saturday jobs. It seems such a shame— my Saturday job as a kitchen porter was something of a rite of passage. I’ll never forget long hoursA_____, scouring grease off huge saucepans and griddles. Working atmosphere there helped me grow a thicker skin, develop quicker banter and, most importantly, taught me the value of hard work. It also resulted in a steady supply of cash,В____. I’m not the only one who has strong memories of weekend work. DJ Trevor Nelson said everyone should be able to have a Saturday job: «It taught me a lot,С____.»

The link between the type of Saturday job a celebrity performed and their later career is sometimes obvious. Dragon’s Den star and businessman Peter Jones, for example, showed early promise by starting his own business. «I passed my Lawn Tennis Association coaching exam,D____,» he explains. «At the start I was coaching other kids,E____, for which I could charge £25-30 an hour. While my friends on milk rounds were getting £35 a week, I was doing five hours on a Saturday and earning four times as much.»

Skier Chemmy Alcott got a job working for the Good Ski Guide, on the advertising side. «It became clear to me what my personal value to companies could be. It led directly to me finding my head sponsor … and it offered me an eight-year contract. That gave me the financial backingF____.»

As part of its response to the Saturday job statistics, the UK Commission for Employment and Skills said a lack of early work opportunities makes it harder for young people to acquire experience for their СVs.

  1. and things would be different if everyone was given the chance

  2. which let me know he approved of me

  3. and I persuaded my local club to let me use a court on Saturdays

  4. which I needed to become a professional skier

  5. which I would happily spend as I liked

  6. that I spent in the kitchen of a busy country pub in East Sussex

  7. but soon I got adults wanting to book lessons














Task 33

Orient Express

In the early 1860s, trains were the preferred way to travel. They weren’t particularly comfortable, however, until American engineer George Mortimer Pullman decided to make trains more luxurious.

By the late 1860s, trains furnished not only sleeping cars, but kitchen and dining facilities, whereA_____. This was innovative for the time, and was aimed to encourage peopleВ_____. The first of these Pullman trains in England ran from London to Brighton and used electricity for illumination.

In 1881, another railway entrepreneur, George Nagelmacker, introduced the use of a restaurant car onboard, and the first Orient Express train service was begun. Running from Paris to Romania the route included Strasbourg, Vienna, Budapest and Bucharest.

Thanks to the 12 mile Simplon Tunnel,С_____, the Orient Express expanded, including a route to Istanbul, and the legendary romance of the Orient Express was in full swing.

Everyone in the social register, including royalty, chose to travel on the wheels of that luxury hotelD_____ in wealthy surroundings. Legends, stories, and intrigue surrounded those trips to exotic places, and those famous peopleE_____.

Unfortunately, during World War II this luxury travel was closed for the most part, and later, after the war,F____ to start it again. Within the next few years airplane travel became popular, and train passenger service declined.

  1. elegant meals were served to passengers

  2. to use trains for long distance travel and vacations

  3. who rode the train

  4. who wrote about it

  5. which connected Switzerland and Italy

  6. that served dishes and wines

  7. there was no money














Task 34

Arizona’s world class cruise

Spectacular Canyon Lake is situated in the heart of the Superstition Mountains in Arizona, giving home to the Dolly Steamboat. The Dolly Steamboat,A____, now cruises the secluded inner waterways of this beautiful lake. It is worth exploring this favourite destination of President Theodore Roosevelt who declared, «The Apache Trail and surrounding area combines the grandeur of the Alps, the glory of the Rockies, the magnificence of the Grand Canyon and then adds somethingВ____.» You will marvel as you travel up to the national forest, which provides the most inspiring and beautiful panoramaС____. Every trip brings new discoveries of rock formations, geological history, and the flora and fauna distinct to the deserts of Arizona.

Once aboard the Dolly Steamboat, you may view the majestic desert big horn sheep, bald eagles and a host bird of other wildlife, water fowl,D____. Experience the unique sound harmony that is created by the waters of Canyon Lake. Stretch out and relax at one of the tables or stand next to the railings on the deck. There is plenty of leg room on the Dolly. You will get a unique chance to listen to the captainE____.

All the passengers are treated with outstanding service and personal attention to every need. Feel free to ask questions, move about and mingle with the crew. So enjoy an unforgettable vacation cruise and seeF____ ,like a ride on Arizona’s Dolly Steamboat.

  1. that nature has ever created in the wild

  2. that none of the others have

  3. hovering over the magnificent lake

  4. who retells the legends of the mysterious past

  5. for yourself why there is nothing quite

  6. who pays much attention to children’s safety

  7. continuing a tradition of cruising since 1925














Task 35

US Congress

The Congress of the United States of America is an important part of the US federal government.

It is an assembly of elected representativesA____ but not to select the chief executive of the nation; that individual is elected by the people.

Congress is not a single organization; it is a vast and complex collection of organizationsB____ and through which members of Congress form alliances.

C____, in which political parties are the only important kind of organization, parties are only one of many important units in Congress.

In fact other organizations have grown in numberD____.

The Democrats and Republicans in the House and the Senate are organized by party leaders,E____ within the House and Senate. The party structure is essentially the same in the House as in the Senate, though the titles of various posts are different.

But leadership carries more power in the House than in the Senate because of the House rules.F_____, the House must restrict debate and schedule its business with great care; thus leaders who do the scheduling and who determine how the rules shall be applied usually have substantial influence.

  1. as party influence has declined

  2. against the spirit of the Constitution

  3. being so large (435 members)

  4. empowered to make laws

  5. unlike the British Parliament

  6. by which the business of Congress is carried on

  7. who in turn are elected by the full party membership














Task 36

The Trailblazers

In the early 1800s, the area that would become the western United States was completely undeveloped.

Explorers, hunters, traders, and settlers had to blaze their own trails.A____ to move possessions and supplies became common place.

Manifest Destiny was the belief that Americans had a God-given right to take over the continent. As they moved west, settlers used this policyB_____ to new people and territories.

Trails increased trade opportunities between western and eastern regions, and the U.S. economy prosperedC_____ on each other for goods.

To achieve Manifest Destiny, the United States purchased land from other countries or conquered territoryD_____ until its borders stretched from coast to coast.

More than one-half million people chose to travel West on trails between 1800 and 1870,E_____.

As new technology spread across the West, however, the use of trails came to an end. The railroads built thousands of miles of tracks, and,F____, a cheap, relatively safe, and quick way to transport people and supplies to western areas existed.

  1. to spread U.S. ideas and government

  2. for the first time in history

  3. thus replacing them forever

  4. as territories became interdependent

  5. the use of covered wagons

  6. by taking land from Native peoples

  7. forming the largest mass migration in history














Task 37

A Young Mayor

This is a very unusual case, but as you will see, unusual doesn’t mean impossible.

An 18-year-old school girl has become the youngest mayor of a British town in history. Amanda Bracebridge,A_____, won leadership of Clun village council in a dramatic election last night. The tiny village only has 122 voters and Amanda won the election by just two votes from the only other candidate, 69-year-old Fred Gardner of the Conservative party. Amanda,B_____, was an independent candidate. She was surprised by her success,C_____. “My election promise was to make sureD_____,” she told us. She was referring to the plans from a large company to buy up farmland and build flats there. “We live in one of the most beautiful villages in Shropshire and I want to make sure it stays that way.”

Amanda, who is in her last year at nearby Bishop’s Castle High School,E_____ and her exams which she takes in two months. “It’s going to be a pretty busy few months,” she said. “But when the exams are over I will be able to concentrate completely on helping my village”.

Amanda had plans to go to university but is now going to start a year laterF_____. “I’ve talked to Leeds University and they say my place will wait for me”. And what is she going to study? Politics? “No, actually, I am going to do sociology and economics”.

  1. who is not a member of any political party

  2. that our village would be protected from outside interests

  3. but it was not a total shock to her

  4. being a politics student at the university

  5. so she can do her job as mayor properly

  6. who is only just old enough to vote herself

  7. will have to find time for her work as mayor














Task 38

Is there enough to say?

They only appeared about ten years ago but already they are everywhere, everyone’s got one. They are the wonder of the modern age — mobile phones, or cell phones,A____. Apparently, mobile phones are now used by about 2.5 billion people worldwide, and about one billion new mobile phones are sold every year worldwide. Go back to 1997, and only 100 million were sold. As we can see, the mobile phone businessB_____.

And the developments keep on coming. Once we could only make phone calls; now mobile phonesC_____ and do many other useful things. Once we had to hold our mobile phones in our hand; now we can use throat microphones. What next? We are told that soon, tiny microphones will be implanted into our lips. We’ll be able to dial numbers just by saying them.

But surely we need to ask ourselves: What’s good about this? OK, we can talk to other people almost all the time now — but is that so great? Watch and listen to people when a plane has landed. AnxiousD_____, dial a number, and then: “It’s me, I’m here. I’ll be there in twenty minutes.” Is this communication? Is this what all these years of technology have brought us to?

In the early days of communication there were letters. When they arrived at your house, you knew they had been delivered by a manE_____.

In those days, people would think very hard before they wrote a letter. You had to have a good reason to write — communication was serious. Now it’s not — people phone each otherF____. Once the phone was a way for people far away from each other to talk — now it’s just an excuse to talk.

  1. has been developed very quickly

  2. not understand why they are doing it for

  3. as Americans call them

  4. riding halfway across the country on a horse

  5. just because they can

  6. can also be used to take and send photos

  7. fingers immediately switch on the mobile phone














Task 39

Promoting language learning

The European Union (EU) is committed to supporting the rights of its citizens to personal and professional mobility, and their ability to communicate with each other. It does so byA_____ to promote the teaching and learning of European languages. These programmes have at least one thing in common: they cover cross-border projects involving partners from two, and often three or more, EU countries.

The EU programmes are designed to complement the national education policies of member countries. Each government is responsible for its own national education policy,B_____. What the EU programmes do is to create links between countries and regions via joint projects,C____.

Since 2007 the main programmes have been put under the overall umbrella of the EU’s lifelong learning programme. All languages are eligible for support under this programme: official languages, regional, minority and migrant languages,D____. There are national information centres in each country,E_____.

The cultural programmes of the EU also promote linguistic and cultural diversity in a number of ways. The “Media” programme funds the dubbing and subtitling of European films forF____. The “Culture” programme builds cross-cultural bridges by supporting the translation of modern authors into other EU languages.

  1. and the languages of the EU’s major trading partners

  2. which includes language teaching and learning

  3. cinemas and television in other EU countries

  4. which enhance the impact of language teaching and learning

  5. funding a number of educational programmes

  6. and encouraging people to learn new languages

  7. where details about the application procedures are given














Task 40

Starting your own business

What are the reasons for starting your own business? One of them is because you believe you are the best in that line or because you have a product or service that has never been offered to the market before. Another is that you are a person in a real hurry and cannot suffer theA_____ to reach your goals. Sometimes it is because you have an inheritanceB_____ soon after you set up a business or that there already is a cash purse with loose strings and you want to make the best of this bonanza.

If your reasons are any or all of the above, abandon the thought right now and save yourself the disillusionmentC____ into the world of commerce.

Start your own business just for the sake of doing a trade, or forD____. Do not burden yourself with lofty notions of superiority when compared to your peers. When setting out to start your own business, be emotional about it, but not impractical; don’t be led by your heart, but be dictated by your mind.

Having covered those parts that are not taught in a business school, let us look atE____ your own business. You should start with a SWOT analysis – strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats – analyze these for yourself, for partners in your business, if any, and for the business itself.

If the result of the analysis is encouraging, then prepare a business plan. It is like a road map for actions in the near foreseeable future to achieve your business goals. Finally, execute the business plan with precision; tweak it as you go along, only so that it helps to meet the end goal of successfullyF_____ the business.

  1. the essentials of starting

  2. that awaits when you step

  3. trials and tribulations of employment

  4. establishing and conducting

  5. preparing a business plan

  6. waiting to be acquired

  7. undertaking the commercial activity














Task 41

(Video) 山西800人小山村,出了7个将军,300个大学生,村里竟然还发现龙脉!|Supports English subtitles and more languages

Archaeology done underwater

Nautical archaeology is the science of finding, collecting, preserving, and studying human objects that have become lost or buried under water. It is a fairly modern field of study since it depends on having the technology to be able to remain underwater for some time to do real work. Whether it is conducted in freshwater or in the sea, A____, nautical archaeology is another way of learning more about the human past.

Although some use the words nautical archaeology to mean a specialized branch of underwater archaeology, B____, most consider the term to mean the same as the words underwater archaeology or marine

archaeology. All of these interchangeable terms mean simply C_____.

Once real trade began, it is safe to say D_____ was probably transported over water at some point in time. By studying submerged objects, we can learn more about past human cultures. In fact, studying ancient artifacts is the only way to learn anything about human societies E_____. Being able to examine the actual objects made and used by ancient people not only adds to the written records they left behind, but allows us to get much closer to the reality of what life was like when they lived. Also, if we pay close attention to how the objects were made and used, we begin to get a more realistic picture of F_____.

  1. that existed long before the invention of writing

  2. that nearly every object made by humans

  3. what those people were really like

  4. which is concerned only with ships and the history of seafaring

  5. that it is the study of archaeology done underwater

  6. and whether it finds sunken ships or old cities

  7. and what was discovered underwater














Task 42

Visiting the Royal Parks

London has a well-deserved reputation as one of the greenest cities in Europe, with a huge number of open spaces across the center of the city. Tourists A_____ can always relax in a lovely, quiet London park.

The Royal Parks, such as St James’s, Green Park, the Regent’s Park, Hyde Park, Richmond, Greenwich, Bushy Park and Kensington Gardens, are beautifully maintained and popular with locals and visitors alike. Many are former hunting estates of English monarchs, preserved as open space B______. They are ideal places to relax and sunbathe in summer, enjoy gorgeous flower beds in spring C_____.

The Royal Parks provide fantastic green routes in London D______ and through some of the most attractive areas of the capital. Picnics in the parks are also a popular activity especially during the busy summer months.

Dogs are welcome in all the Royal Parks, although there are some places E_____. These are clearly indicated within each park and are usually ecologically sensitive sites, children’s play areas, restaurants, cafes and some sports areas. Ground nesting birds are particularly sensitive to disturbance by dogs and people. So it is necessary to observe the warning signs F____. In Bushy Park and Richmond Park dogs should be kept away from the deer.

The Royal Parks are for everyone to enjoy.

  1. that are displayed during the nesting season

  2. while the city has grown up around them

  3. and admire the changing leaves as autumn arrives

  4. where they are not allowed or should be kept on a lead

  5. who are tired of the noise, crowds and excitement of sightseeing

  6. who does not know the route to the place of destination

  7. that take cyclists away from traffic














Task 43

The Survival of the Welsh Language

Wales is a small country of just over 3 million people, on the north west seaboard of Europe. Despite many historical incursions of other peoples, particularly the English, it has preserved its ancient Celtic language, A_____. Welsh is habitually spoken by about 10% of the people, half understood by a further 10%, and not spoken at all by the majority in this ‘bilingual’ society.

Up to the First World War most people were Welsh speaking, especially in the mountains of North Wales. The English-speaking areas were along the more fertile coastal plains. On the whole there was an easy tolerance of the two languages, B______.

By 1919 there was a considerable drop in Welsh speakers. This was due to the large flows of capital investment from England into the South Wales coalfield, C_____.

Now, D_____, commerce and everyday business were carried out in English.

In the rural mountain areas 80% to 85% of the population were Welsh speakers, E ____. However, in the coalfield country of Glamorgan 70% spoke English only, and in its neighbour border county the figure was over 90%.

By 1931 the number of people able to speak Welsh in the whole of Wales had fallen to 37% of the population, F ____. It continued to drop and reached its lowest – 18.6% — in the 1990s. But by the start of the 21st century, numbers had begun to increase again and reached 21.7% in 2004!

  1. as well as education and the law

  2. the only one of a number of allied languages that remain

  3. with radio and the English press further speeding the decline

  4. many being able to speak Welsh only

  5. where Welsh was studied as language and literature in an academic manner

  6. apart from the fact that Welsh was not permitted to be used at all in the schools

  7. bringing a flood of immigrant labour from all over Britain














Task 44

Secrets of Long Life

There are places in the world where people live longer than anywhere else. The remote Japanese island of Okinawa is one of these places. While the lifespan in Britain is 77 years for men and 81 for women, Okinawa has a population of about one million, of which 900 are centenarians — A_____ in Britain or the USA. So what is their secret of long life?

«The calendar may say they’re 80, but their body says they’re 60,» says Bradley Willcox, a scientist researching the extraordinary phenomenon. The research has shown hormonal differences between Okinawans and B____ but their longevity has been linked to diet. They eat more tofu and soya than any other people in the world and also enjoy a range of different fruit and vegetables, all rich in anti-oxidants. But the most significant thing isn’t what they eat but how much. The Okinawans C_____ known as ‘hara hachi bu’, which translates as ‘eat until you are only 80 % full’.

Scientists refer to this way of eating as ‘caloric restrictions’. No-one knows exactly why it works, but scientists believe it D_____ that there is the danger of famine. This in turn E_____ and so may lead to better preservation and slower aging.

«It’s a stark contrast with the cultural habits that drive food consumption in F____ » says Mr. Willcox. If we look at high streets and supermarkets in most other countries, you will see that he is right. Restaurants offer all-you-can-eat menus and supersize portions. Supermarkets are full of special offers encouraging us to buy more food than we need.

  1. make it a healthy diet

  2. other parts of the world

  3. four times higher than the average

  4. have a cultural tradition

  5. sends a signal to the body

  6. the rest of the population

  7. makes the body protect itself














Task 45

Beaches of Portugal

Covering more than 850 km, the Portuguese coast boasts such a large number of fine, white sandy beaches that it is almost impossible to keep count. All bathed by the Atlantic Ocean and all different, their beauty is hard to describe, so there is nothing better A _____.

The most famous are in the Algarve. With three thousand hours of sun per year and warm waters, there are beaches to suit every taste and many dreamlike resorts. The choices are many, from sandy stretches extending as far as the eye can see B ______, the trade image of the region. They are always accompanied by a calm clear sea, C_____.

In Costa da Caparica, the beaches are particularly dear to Lisbonites D _____ for sun and sea bathing. There are deserted beaches here too, of a wild beauty, E ____ nature. In the centre, tourists will find very wide sandy stretches, to which traditional fishing adds a picturesque touch. And further north, the colder waters and the invigorating sea are tempered by the welcoming atmosphere and the clean air of the mountains and the forests.

Despite all their differences, all beaches share one thing – quality. They are safe and offer a wide range of support and recreational services, F ____. And a large number of Portuguese beaches are granted the European blue flag every year, a distinction that is a sign of their excellent conditions.

  1. where one can enjoy close contact with

  2. which meet every need of their users

  3. than to discover them once for oneself

  4. who has never been to this wonderful city

  5. which is ideal for various water sports

  6. to the smaller coves, sheltered by huge cliffs

  7. who have different options around the capital














Task 46

The Joy of Reading

Have you ever wondered why people read? Why reading is one of the few things A _____ for thousands of years? Even before reading became available to the general public, stories were told around campfires, passed down from generation to generation.

First of all, stories are a good way to escape from your ordinary life, to get immersed in another world, if only for a little time. While reading, you can imagine yourself in different situations B _____, but in the moment that doesn’t matter. Whether you’re suffering from depression or are just bored, reading is a great distraction.

Similarly, another reason people are attracted to stories, is because they are lonely, very often they feel as if they are the only ones in the world C _____. Identifying with a fictional character can make a big difference in helping a person understand D _____.

Other people read because it can be a good way to relax. It can be very nice to sit down and enjoy a good plot unfold, to watch the actions of fictional characters from the side, and to see the consequences of these actions, E ____.

Lastly, people read because it is the easiest way to gain knowledge in a certain area. Instead of finding a teacher, you can just find a book, sit down, and spend a few hours reading. This way you can study wherever you want, whenever you want F _____.

There are countless books in the world, and whoever you are, whatever you’re feeling, there is definitely a book out there, just waiting for you to discover it.

  1. try to avoid the boredom of life

  2. that has consistently remained part of society

  3. that they are not alone

  4. going through something difficult

  5. without having to bear any responsibility

  6. that range from unlikely to impossible

  7. at your own pace














Task 47

Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, located on small Hare Island, is the historic core of the city. The history of St. Petersburg begins with the history of the fortress.

Since 1700 Russia had been fighting the Northern War against Sweden. By 1703 the lands by the Neva River were conquered. To protect them from the attacks of the Swedes it was necessary to build a strong outpost here. The fortress was founded on Hare Island 16 (27) May, 1703 by joint plan of Peter I and French engineer Joseph-Gaspard Lambert de Guerin. This day is well known A____.

The fortress stretches from west to east with six bastions B____. The Peter’s Gate on the east side, C____, has remained since the time of Peter I. The Peter and Paul Cathedral, D____ emperors and the monument of Russian baroque, was completed after the death of the emperor, in 1733. The weathervane as a golden angel with a cross, E____, is one of the main symbols of the city. On the opposite side of the cathedral, there is the Mint building, constructed in the time of Paul I by architect A. Porto. Coinage was moved to the fortress F____ in the time of Peter I. The Peter and Paul Fortress has never directly participated in any fighting. From the very beginning of its existence it was used as a political prison. Since 1924 the Peter and Paul Fortress has been a part of the Museum of the History of St. Petersburg.

  1. as the day of the birth of St. Petersburg

  2. which was designed by D. Trezzini

  3. which was the burial place of Russian

  4. and reminding of the rich history of the city

  5. as the most protected part of the city

  6. which is located on the spire of the cathedral

  7. that are located at the corners














Task 48

Surviving in a Desert

A desert is defined as a place that gets less than 250 mm of rain each year. It differs sharply from the climate of a rain forest, A _____.

Arid desert lands cover about one third of the earth’s surface. Most deserts are covered with sand, B _____. There are also usually a lot of rocky areas. This combination of sand and rock means that the soil is not very fertile. C ____, some living things are able to do well in this setting. Many plants have changed and developed in ways D____. These changes have become apparent in a number of ways. Some plants are able to grow very quickly E____. They turn green and produce flowers within just a few days. Other desert plants simply stop growing in very dry weather. They appear to be dead, but when the rain returns, they come back to life and begin growing again.

Desert animals have also developed many characteristics that help them to survive in arid environment. Camels can go for a very long time without drinking. Other animals, such as snakes and rats, find cool places to sleep during the day and come out only at night. The extremely long ears of desert rabbits help them F_____. Changes like these have allowed some animals and plants to grow and develop successfully in a very challenging ecological system: the desert.

There are countless books in the world, and whoever you are, whatever you’re feeling, there is definitely a book out there, just waiting for you to discover it.

  1. which is often in the form of hills called sand dunes

  2. whenever it rains

  3. to find water as far as 25 metres away

  4. which can receive up to 10,000 mm of rain annually

  5. to better distribute their body heat and stay cool

  6. even though the desert environment is very dry and hot

  7. that help them to live in the desert














Task 49

Nevsky Prospect

Nevsky Prospect is the main and most famous street of St. Petersburg. The unique architectural ensemble of Nevsky Prospect was formed during the 18th – early 20th centuries. It starts from the bank of the Neva River, runs through the centre of the city and ends at the Neva River. The whole history of St. Petersburg can be seen in the history of the avenue. Nevsky Prospect is 4.5 km long and 25-60 m wide. The narrowest section is located from the Admiralty to the Moika River, A_____.

After the construction of the Admiralty in 1704 and the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in 1710, it was decided to build a road B_____ each other and with the Novgorod Path, which was used by Russian merchants. The construction began on both sides at the same time, the roads were laid through the wood, and in 1760s they were connected into one road, C_____, but with a turn at the Vosstaniya Square. Nevsky Prospect got its name only in 1783. The road was paved with cobble stones, D_____. It was the first street in St. Petersburg with gas lighting. By the early 20th century Nevsky Prospect had become the financial centre of Russia E____ had their offices there.

Nowadays, Nevsky Prospect is the centre of cultural and social life of St. Petersburg. There are museums, theatres, exhibition halls, cinemas, restaurants, cafés, shops F____.

  1. and hotels there or nearby the avenue

  2. showing the original width of the avenue

  3. which was not as straight as it was planned

  4. which were built by famous architects and

  5. connecting these two important structures with

  6. and a few rows of trees were planted along the street

  7. as the 40 largest banks of Russia, Europe and America














Task 50

Whales in a Noisy Ocean

Whales use sound in very different ways. Some whales produce songs that travel over vast distances. They also use echolocation, like bats,A_____. But other noise in the ocean creates a problem for the whales.

Since 1987, the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) has sent their research vessel Song of the Whale around the worldB_____. During the travels, the Song of the Whale scientists have developed expertise C____ to listen to and record the sounds that the animals make. Thishelps them to track, identify, and survey different species.

One of the threats facing whales and other marine animals is noise pollution in the seas, such as noise from drilling, military activities, oil exploration, and coastal construction. This noise can cause great distress to whales and dolphins and can D_____.

It is feared this noise pollution may cause mass strandings,E_____. If the Song of the Whale team can F____, then hopefully the nature and location of disturbing noise can be changed.

  1. in using underwater microphones

  2. to locate food and find their way

  3. result in injury and even death

  4. track and identify their habitats

  5. to filter out food from the water

  6. to provide a platform for marine research

  7. when large numbers come ashore














Task 51

Unique nature of Kamchatka

Kamchatka is a peninsula located in the north-eastern part of Russia. It is surrounded with the Okhotskoye Sea, the Beringovo Sea and the Pacific Ocean. This region has a very unique environment A_____ one is looking for picturesque views, unforgettable travels and unity with nature.

Kamchatka is famous for its volcanoes, B_____. Volcanoes are represented on Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the most eastern city in the northern hemisphere, coat of arms as well. There are more than 300 volcanoes

in Kamchatka, from 28 up to 36 of them are active, or potentially active. Kamchatka volcanoes are included in the list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The region is also known C____ — rivers and lakes. Many Kamchatka rivers spring from mountain tops and glaciers, that is why they are very clean, and it is wonderful for those D_____. In general, there are up to 14 thousand rivers and streams, 100 thousand lakes and 414 glaciers in Kamchatka.

Kamchatka is a home to the Valley of Geysers, E_____ geysers in the world, after Icelandic geyser fields. It is not easily accessible, as long as it is too unique to be opened for tourists all the time. The Valley of Geysers’ ecosystem is very vulnerable, F_____ and regulate the visiting. In fact, the larger part of Kamchatka is preserved. There are many nature reserves and nature parks in Kamchatka.

  1. which are depicted on most souvenirs there

  2. so it is necessary to monitor it all the time

  3. who love fishing, including Kamchatka bears

  4. which has the second largest concentration of

  5. to be a place of many water sources

  6. to be a popular nature reserve and health resort

  7. that makes it a place to visit when














Task 52

The life of Pi

«The Life of Pi» published in 2001 is the third book by the Canadian author Yann Martel. It has A_____, won several prizes and been translated into forty-one languages.

At the start of the book, we B____ in India. His father owns the city zoo and the family home is in the zoo. When they aren’t at school, Pi and his brother help their father at the zoo and he learns a lot about animals.

When Pi is sixteen, his parents decide to close the zoo and move to Canada. They travel by ship taking the animals with them. On the way, there is C_____. Sadly, Pi’s family and the sailors all die in the storm, but Pi lives and finds himself in a lifeboat with a hyena, zebra, orangutan and an enormous tiger. At first, Pi is scared of the animals and jumps into the ocean. Then he remembers there are sharks in the water and decides to climb back into the lifeboat. One by one, the animals in the lifeboat kill and eat each other, till only Pi and the tiger are left alive. Luckily for Pi, there is D_____, but he soon needs to start catching fish. He feeds the tiger to stop it killing and eating him. He also uses a whistle and E_____ and show it that he’s the boss.

Pi and the tiger spend 227 days in the lifeboat. They live through terrible storms and the burning heat of the Pacific sun. They are often hungry and ill. Finally, they arrive at the coast of Mexico, but you will have to F_____ in the end!

  1. read the book to find out what happens

  2. some food and water on the lifeboat

  3. his knowledge of animals to control the tiger

  4. received an award for being strong

  5. sold seven million copies worldwide

  6. learn about Pi’s childhood in Pondicherry

  7. a terrible storm and the ship sinks














Task 53

Santa Claus

The man we know as Santa Claus has a history all to his own. Today, he is thought of mainly as the jolly man in red, but his storyA_____ the 3rd century to a monk named St. Nicholas. It is believed that Nicholas was born sometime around 280 AD in modern-day Turkey. Much admired for his kindness, St. NicholasB_____. It is said that he gave away all of his inherited wealth and traveled the countryside helping the poor and sick. Over the course of many years, Nicholas’s popularity spread and he became known as the protector of children and sailors. His feast dayC_____ his death, December 6. This was traditionally considered a lucky day to make large purchases or to get married. By the Renaissance, St. Nicholas was the most popular saint in Europe.

St. Nicholas firstD______ at the end of the 18th century. The name Santa Claus evolved from a Dutch shortened form of Sint Nikolaas. As his popularity grew, Sinter Klaas was described as everything from a jocker with a blue three-cornered hat, red waistcoat, and yellow stockings to a man wearing a broad-brimmed hat and a huge pair of Flemish trousers.

In the 19thcenturies big storesE_____ using images of the newly-popular Santa Claus. In 1841, thousands of children visited a Philadelphia shop to see a life-size Santa Claus model. ItF_____ before stores began to attract children, and their parents, with the lure of a peek at the “real-life” Santa Claus with his famous white beard and red gown.

  1. began to advertise Christmas shopping

  2. became the subject of many legends

  3. began dressing up unemployed men in

  4. is celebrated on the anniversary of

  5. was only a matter of time

  6. stretches all the way back to

  7. appeared in American popular culture














Task 54

Welcome to the Smithsonian

When you visit any of the Smithsonian’s 19 museums and galleries or the National zoo, you are entering the largest museum complex in the world. This complex holds about 137 million unique objects in its trust for the American people.

The Smithsonian was established in 1846 with funds given to theUnited Statesby James Smithson, an English scientist. The main idea was to increase and spread knowledge for free. And now all Smithsonian institutions are still devoted to public education,A__________ history.

Ten Smithsonian museums and galleries are located in the centre of theU.S.capital. Six other museums and the National zoo are nearby in theWashingtonmetropolitan area,B__________.

The19thand the newest museumC__________ is the National Museum of African American history and culture. It is now operating in the form of a virtual museum. Its key feature is the memory book,D__________. These diverse memories are linked to each other and to the museum content,E__________.

The Smithsonian complex is home to the world’s foremost research centres in science, the arts and the humanities. Besides the basic researchF__________, there are a number of special facilities. Conservation centre at the zoo studies rare and endangered species, environment centre carries out research in ecosystems in the coastal area.

  1. that is carried on regularly in each of the museums

  2. providing different materials in the arts, science and

  3. placing a spotlight on people and events in African American history

  4. that has been established within the Smithsonian complex

  5. which allows website visitors to upload their own stories or images

  6. and visitors can enjoywatching rare exhibits on

  7. and two museums are situated in New York City














Task 55

National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art was created inWashingtonD.C.for the people of theUnited Statesin 1937. It started with the gift of the financier and art collectorA__________. His gift also included a building to house the new museum, to be constructed on the National Mall. Opened to the public in 1941, this grand building,B__________, was at the time the largest marble structure in the world.

The newly created National Gallery soon attracted similar gifts from hundreds of other collectors. This tradition of generosity continues to this day with gifts from private donors and artistsC__________.

The gallery’s East building contains the collection of modern and contemporary painting, sculpture,D__________. The East and West buildings are connected by an underground tunnel with a moving walkway.

The National Gallery enjoys federal support,E__________, to fulfill its mission to exhibit and interpret great works of European and American art in the nation’s collection. Since its founding, federal funds have fostered the protection and care of the art collection and have supported the gallery’s work, ensuringF__________. Private funding helped to create a renowned collection of works of art and to construct the two landmark buildings. Private support makes possible to arrange a changing programme of special exhibitions.

  1. which is now called the West building

  2. that the gallery brings daily profit to the country

  3. who are willing to share their possessions with the public

  4. who presented old master paintings and sculptures to the country

  5. as well as partnership with private organizations

  6. that the gallery is open daily and free of charge

  7. as well as an advanced research centre and an art library














Task 56

Healthy school meals

Children at Southdown Infants School in Bath enjoy tasty homemade meals such as roast turkey with fresh vegetables, chicken, salad and fresh fruit for pudding. Vegetables areA____________. Instead of crisps, chocolate and sweets, the school canteen serves organic carrots, dried fruit and fresh seasonal fruit in bags for 10p,B______________.

Southdown’s healthy eating initiative began four years ago with the start of a breakfast club.

Now Ms Culley, the head teacher of the school, says that the teachers very clearly see the link between diet and concentration. “Children’s concentration and behaviourC______________.” The teachers would also like to give the children the experience of eating together. It turned out that some children weren’t used to that.

Pupils are also encouraged to find out more about where their food comes from by D______________.

Parents are also involved and are invited in to try school dinners on special occasions,E_______________.

The efforts of staff, pupils and parents to create a healthy eating environment were recognized earlier this monthF______________the Best School Dinner award.

Ms Culley said: “We are happy to win this award. Healthy eating is at the centre of everything we do. It’s really rewarding to see so many children enjoy real food.”

  1. such as Easter and Christmas

  2. visiting a local farm

  3. local, fresh and organic where possible

  4. provide good quality food

  5. definitely improve after a good meal

  6. and about 100 bags are sold each day

  7. when the school was awarded














Task 57

Walking is not enough to keep fit

Walking may not be enough on its own to produce significant health benefits, research suggests. A team from Canada’s University of Alberta compared a 10,000-step exercise programme with a more traditional fitness regime of moderate intensity. Researchers found improvementsA_______were significantly higher in the second group. They told an American College of Sports Medicine meeting that gentle exercise wasB__________. In total 128 people tookC_________. The researchers assessed influence on fitness by measuring blood pressure and lung capacity. They found out the 10,000-step programme did help to get people motivated – and was an excellent way to startD_________. But to increase the effectiveness, some intensity must be added to their exercise. “Across your day, while you are achieving those 10,000 steps, take 200 to 400 of them at a faster pace. You’ve got to do more than light exercise and include regular moderate activity, and don’t be shy to have an occasional period of time at an energetic level.” The researchers were concerned there was too much focusE__________, rather than on its intensity.

Professor Stuart Biddle, an expert in exercise science at the University of Loughborough, said it was possible that the current guidelines on how much exercise to take were set too low. “However, you have got to findF____. The harder you make it, the fewer people will actually do it.” Professor Biddle said there was no doubt that energetic exercise was the way to get fit, but volume rather than intensity might be more useful in tackling issues such as obesity.

  1. part in the project

  2. taking exercise

  3. gave marked health benefits

  4. in fitness levels

  5. on simply getting people to take exercise

  6. not enough to get fit

  7. a compromise between physiology and psychology














Task 58

Double-decker Bus

A double-decker bus is a bus that has two levels. While double-decker long-distance buses are in widespread use around the world,A____. Double-decker buses are popular in some European cities and in some parts of Asia, usually in former British colonies. Many towns around the world have a few that specialize in short sight-seeing tours for tourists because, as William Gladstone observed, «the way to see London is from the top of a ‘bus'».

Double-decker buses are taller than other buses. They are extensively used in the United Kingdom,B_____, removed from normal service in December 2005 — they still operate on heritage routes. Elsewhere in Europe, double-deckers are used throughout the Dublin Bus network in Ireland, where they are making a comeback on Dublin’s outer suburban routes and also the streets of Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford. They are a common sight in Berlin, where the BVG makes extensive use of them. Double-decker long-distance coaches are also in widespread use throughout Europe.

Most buses in Hong Kong and about half in Singapore are double-deckers as well. The only areas in North America thatC_____are the western Canadian province of British Columbia and the United States city of Las Vegas. They are currently being tested in Ottawa on the express routes. The city of Davis, California, in the United States uses vintage double-decker buses for public transport. Davis, California is also home to the first vintage double-decker bus converted from diesel gasoline to run on CNG. The city of Victoria, BC, the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, and a couple of others use Dennis Tridents. A few are also used as tour buses, especially in New York. Double-deckers are have also been used in Mumbai since 1937.

In Brazil,D_____, some companies use double-decker buses. Double-deckers are not a good option for use outside the towns (most roads in Brazil are in very poor condition), andE_____.

Double-decker buses are in widespread use in India in many of the major cities. Some double-decker busesF_____, with no roof and shallow sides. These are popular for sightseeing tours.

  1. double-deckers are adored by thousands of tourists

  2. use double-decker buses for public transport

    (Video) #углубленныйанглийский 8 апреля 2016 года

  3. double-decker city buses are less common

  4. where perhaps the most famous was the London Routemaster

  5. their use is being discouraged by transportation authorities

  6. have an open upper deck

  7. where buses are sometimes the only interstate transport














Task 59

Natural Links In a Long Chain of Being

I believe we are not alone.

Even if I am on the other side of the world from the farmhouse I live in, I still dream of the ancient vines out the window, and the shed out back that my grandfather’s father built in 1870 with eucalyptus trunks. As long as I can recreate these images,A____.

All of us need some grounding in our modern world of constant moving, buying, selling, meeting and leaving. Some find constancy in religion, others in friends or community. But we need some daily signposts that we are not different, not better,B____.

For me, this house, farm, these ancient vines are those roots. Although I came into this world alone and will leave alone, I am not alone.

There are ghosts of dozens of conversations in the hallways, stories I remember about buying new plows that now rust in the barnyard and ruined crops from the same vinesC____.

All of us are natural links in a long chain of being, and that I need to know what time of day it is, what season is coming, whether the wind is blowing north or from the east, and if the moon is still full tomorrow night,D _____.

The physical world around us constantly changes,E_____.We must struggle in our brief existence to find some transcendent meaning and so find relief in the knowledgeF_____.

You may find that too boring, living with the past as present. I find it refreshing. There is an old answer to every new problem, that wise whispers of the past are with us. If we just listen and remember, we are not alone; we have been here before.

  1. I never quite leave home

  2. but human nature does not

  3. that we are now harvesting

  4. but we as well as our heart did not

  5. not worse than those who came before us

  6. just as the farmers who came before me did

  7. that our ancestors have gone through this before














Task 60

The Show Begins

My Uncle Jim took me to all the Broadway shows in New York City, and I was star struck! Actually he wasn’t my real uncle – that’s just what we called him. He was a close friend of my parents. He was a bit stocky with red hair,A_________.

I remember the theaters on Broadway,B__________. The curtains were made of this real heavy, dark red material. There were huge chandelier lights hanging from the ceiling. The walls were dark, paneled wood. The seats were red and cushyC__________.

The orchestra sat at the base of the stage in a pit. I usually went down to the front to see the musiciansD__________. They were all crammed into such a tiny space. I played the flute myself and my dad kept encouraging me that if I kept it up,E___________. But truly, I didn’t want to be tucked away down there. I wanted to be on top, front and center.

Most people dressed rather finely, and certain fragrances took center stage as various women passed by.The sounds of the audienceF__________at their seats were clearly heard while last minute patrons filled in. There was electricity in the air and then the lights would go down and up, and you knew it was time for the show to get started. The lights dimmed. The music began. And you were swept up into a whole new world. I loved it!

  1. I could be playing down there someday

  2. and set real close together

  3. which were so old and posh

  4. and he had a beard and moustache

  5. I wasn’t that good at music

  6. getting ready and warming up

  7. laughing and chattering away














Task 61

Scouting moves ahead

The Scout Movement, which is also known as the Boy Scouts has changed massively in more than 100 years, though many people do not realise this.

For many people in Britain the word “scouting” evokes images of boys in short trousersA__________. Many people imagine that the Scout Association and its female counterpart the Guides Association are old-fashioned. They think these associations are for peopleB__________than the future, people who just like camping in the rain and washing in cold water.

It’s quite easy to understand why Scouts and Guides have this sort of image. The “Boy Scouts” were founded over 100 years ago by Robert Baden-Powell, a retired English army general; the “Girl Guides” followed three years later. They were organised in an almost military manner. Young people had to learn discipline and how to do things as a group. TheyC__________in difficult conditions, learnt to make campfires and, yes, they certainly had to get used to washing in cold water. In those days though, thatD__________many people washed in cold water.

Nevertheless, even at the start, there was much more to scouting than that. Scouts and Guides also learned the value of solidarity. Right from the start, they had to cope with difficult situations,E__________, and play a useful part in society. Baden-Powell’s organisations were inclusive, and never exclusive; any young person could become a Scout or a Guide, regardless of race, background or religion.

Though the Scout and Guide movements began in England, they soon spread to other countries, and within 50 years, scoutingF__________with young people all over the world.

  1. who are more interested in the past

  2. and girls in blue uniforms

  3. that were generally better

  4. was not particularly unusualas

  5. went on camping expeditions

  6. interact with other people

  7. had become a popular activity














Task 62

Skip the sun, get a glow the healthy way

Everyone at some point has wanted a “healthy glow,” whether it’s a must-have for summer, or a vacation, the thought of tan skin has crossed the minds of millions. If you are pale, itA__________. There is wild excitement when after a day in the sun your skin is tan, not burnt. Surely everyone is familiar with the famous conversation upon the realization that you got fried at the beach. Your friends reassure you with “Don’t worry itB__________.” It may all seem like fun and games at the time, but alarming new researchC__________.

Some tan-seekers do it the old-fashioned way, grab a towel and hit the pool or beach. Recently, millions of young girlsD__________instead. Regardless of how the tan is achieved, any change in skin coloring is evidence of skin cell damage. This can lead to cancer. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, melanoma, or skin cancer, among people aged 18 to 39 has risen dramatically. In the United States the number of skin cancer cases due to tanning, is higher than the number of lung cancer cases due to smoking.

While it is true that being outside and active is great for your body and the sun does provide vitamin D, everyone’s health still needs protecting. However, it’sE__________, limit time spent in direct sunlight, between the hours of10 a.m. and 4 p.m., and wear sunscreen at all times. A fashionable option is the sun hat: both elegant and fun. Big floppy hats may seem ridiculous at first, butF__________.

Another advice is to look into sunless tanners: They are cheap and in no way endanger the lives of users.So, fake it, don’t bake it!

  1. takes a lot of time and effort to tan

  2. have been turning to tanning beds

  3. they are actually quite classy accessories

  4. better to avoid indoor tanning

  5. have inspired people to get their skin checked

  6. will eventually turn into a tan

  7. has taken the healthy out of healthy glow














Task 63

Grant-making agency

The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent grant-making agency of the United States government. Established in 1965, it is one of the largest sources of grant funds for humanities projects and programs in the U.S. NEH promotes knowledge of the history, thought, and culture, not only of the United States,A__________.

NEH grants facilitate research and original scholarship, strengthen teaching and learning in the humanities in American schools and colleges, give opportunities for citizens to engage in lifelong learning,B__________.

The Endowment is directed by a chairman,C__________ and confirmed by the U.S. Senate for a term of four years. Advising the chairman is the National Council on the Humanities, a board of 26 distinguished private citizensD__________ with the advice of the Senate. The National Council members serve six-year terms.

NEH grants are typically awarded to U.S. cultural institutions, such as museums, archives, libraries, colleges, universities, and public television and radio stations,E__________. Eligibility is limited to U.S. non-profit institutions and to U.S. citizens and foreignersF__________ prior to the time of application. Grants are awarded through a competitive process. The chairman takes into account the advice provided by the review process and, by law, makes all funding decisions.

  1. who is appointed by the president

  2. but of other countries of the world

  3. but in every aspect of social sciences

  4. who are also appointed by the president

  5. who have been living in the U.S. for three years

  6. as well as to individual scholars of the humanities

  7. as well as provide access to cultural and educational resources














Task 64


The 5thofNovember has always had a very special place in my heart. More important than New Year’s Eve, but probably less important than the Olympics ceremonies, the 5thof November every year isA__________all over the country to go wild!

The night of the 5this often cold and damp and parents wrap up their children in layers of jumpers, coats, hats, scarves and gloves. They fuss over the littlestB__________aren’t scared. They comfort their pets and give them a safe place to curl up inside, away from the cacophony about to start outside.

Outside the bonfire isC__________up your nose. If you’re lucky, there might be some pumpkin soup left over from Halloween to warm you up, because in spite of all the layers and the excitement, you’ll still need warming up until the bonfire gets going!

When it’s absolutely dark and the bonfire is blazing, the children and parents huddle together in groups, staring up at the sky. What are they waiting for? The screech of the first firework deafens them all andD__________. The“oohs”and“aaahs”of the crowd keep perfect time with the“kabooms”of the rockets. With every firework that lights up the sky, parents watch the delight grow on their children’s faces and sigh with relief.

After the grand finale, they make their way home with the noises still echoing in their ears. An extra special treatE__________! Waving them through the chilly air, spelling out names and drawing pictures, even the oldest members of the family remember how to be kids!

This is what the 5thof November means to me. Every year, itF__________such bright and colourful fireworks and heard such loud bangs. I really hope I never grow out of it!

  1. differences in traditions

  2. children and hope that they

  3. the day for fireworks lovers

  4. the explosion lights up the sky

  5. feels like the first time I’ve seen

  6. waits at home though: sparklers

  7. lit and the smell of smoke creeps














Task 65

Earth-sheltered homes

Earth-sheltered or simply underground homes are one of those creations by man, which brings him closer to nature. Unlike the normal traditional houses thatA__________, these earth-sheltered homes are built using the shelter of the ground. Earth-sheltered homes can be easily made in hilly areas.

The basic idea behind the construction of such a house is that they are built with the idea ofB________and each of these homes is built entirely different from each other.

The construction of these homes is usually done according to the shape of the area where the house is built. Their designsC________to the nature. The early earth houses which were initially built lacked windows. Modern day earth-sheltered homes though have windows as well as any other facility that the people living there might require.

Some of the major benefits of earth-sheltered homes are that they are naturally insulating. This makes them cool in the summer and cozy and warm in the winter. Another advantageD__________and are well protected from earthquakes as well as wind-storms. Many earth-sheltered homes are also defended against intruders since there is usually only one entry.

As everything has its pros and cons, earth-sheltered homes also do. The interior decoration of these homes, like placing the furniture or huge paintings,E__________. These homes also have dark spaces inside and for this reason, lots of lighting is essential.

Earth-sheltered homes are one of the greenest housing designs that combines Mother Nature with eco-friendlyF__________.

  1. are built on the ground

  2. are usually very organic

  3. is being built facing south

  4. being environmentally friendly

  5. building materials and lifestyle

  6. is that these homes are safe from fire

  7. can be difficult due to the construction














Task 66


Australia is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse nations. Nearly a quarter of the people who live in AustraliaA__________. They come from the United Kingdom and other European countries, but also from China, Vietnam, North Africa, and the Middle East.

First people arrived in Australia about 50,000 years ago. TheyB__________ land bridges when sea levels were lower. The next to land in Australia were Dutch explorers. They came in1606. In1788 the British began to settle there. Many settlersC__________ as punishment. For a short time, the newcomers lived peacefully with the Aboriginal people.

In 1851, gold was discovered in Australia. A rush to find riches broughtD__________ 1859, six separate colonies were created which later became part of the British Commonwealth.

Australian culture is founded on stories of battlers, bushrangers and brave soldiers. TodayE__________ its Aboriginal heritage, vibrant mix of cultures, innovative ideas and a thriving ecosystem.

Australia’s ecosystem is an unusual one because of its remote location. As a result, there areF__________and nowhere else in the world, such as kangaroo and koala.

One of Australia’s most amazing sites rises like an enormous whale’s back from a flat desert called the Red Center. It is a sacred natural formation at the heart of the country and the largest rock in the world!

  1. Australia is one of the most

  2. were born in other countries

  3. Australia also defines itself by

  4. many animal species that occur here

  5. may have travelled from Asia across

  6. thousands of new immigrants, and by

  7. were criminals sent to live in Australia














Task 67

Living nature in Madeira

Right in the middle of the Atlantic, the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo are a haven of natural beauty. The exotic colours of the flowers stand out from among the blue sea and the emerald green vegetation. This is an archipelago where the big territory is a protected area andA__________is located.

The Madeira Natural Park was created in 1982 to preserve this vast natural heritage, a worldwide rarity. The park is classified as a Biogenetic Reserve,B__________, with some rare species such as the mountain orchid, unique in the world, and also some exotic large trees. To visit this park is to discover Nature! The park covers about two-thirds of the island, making Madeira a truly ecological destination.

The springtime temperature,C__________, cries out for open air activities. Visitors can go for a walk in the park, visit the city of Funchal or roam freely around the island. Boat rides are an excellent way ofD__________. In such a naturally welcoming environment, balance and well-being are taken for granted. Madeira offers various tourist complexesE__________.

Popular feasts,F__________, are opportunities to appreciate traditional gastronomic flavours and see Madeira partying, especially for the Carnival parades, the Flower festival, the Atlantic festival and, above all, the end-of-year fireworks display.

  1. which is felt all year round

  2. which take place in Madeira all year round

  3. where the largest laurel forest in the world

  4. admiring the coastline from a different perspective

  5. where one can find a unique range of flora and fauna

  6. choosing this holiday destination for its natural beauty

  7. that have prime conditions for boating and scuba diving














Task 68

Wild animals in cities

Have you ever seen bears in Vancouver parks, leopards on the streets of Mumbai or wild pigs in gardens in Berlin? Recently, thereA__________ on TV about big animals coming into towns and cities. What happens when wild animals come into our cities? Is it dangerous for us and the animals?

Wild animals usually come into cities to look for food. In Cape Town, South Africa, baboons sometimes come into the suburbs. They eat fruit from gardens and go into people’s kitchens and take food from cupboards and fridges! Baboons areB__________children and fight with pet dogs. Many people do not like them, but the city can be dangerous for baboons too. Sometimes, baboons areC__________human food can be very bad for their teeth. The city council in Cape Town has a team of Baboon Monitors whose job is to find baboons D ___________ to the countryside. This makes the city safer for people and is healthier for the baboons. However, the main problem is that a lot of baboons will come back to the city to find food again.

In Berlin, Germany, groups of wild pigs have come into the city for hundreds of years, but now the winters are warmer, there are even more pigs than in the past. Pigs eat flowers and plants and dig in gardens and parks in the city. They alsoE__________accidents. Some city residents like the pigs and give them food. But the city council is worried about the traffic accidents, so theyF__________ have put up fences to stop the pigs coming into the city.

  1. cause lots of problems

  2. in the city and take them back

  3. walk in the street and cause traffic

  4. hurt in car accidents and the sugar in

  5. strong animals and sometimes they scare

  6. have been many reports in newspapers and

  7. have told people to stop giving the pigs food and














Task 69

Europe’s best hidden gems

There are incredible destinations in Europe known worldwide, such as Amsterdam and its canals, London and its museums, its shopping and atmosphere, or Paris, the City of Light. Europe also has thousands of hidden treasures. There is a wide selection of the finest unknown destinations in Europe, from Lugano in Switzerland A__________.

Lugano is an international city, the crossroads and melting pot of European culture. It constitutes one of the most interesting regions to be discovered. Lugano is not only Switzerland’s third most important financial centre, B__________old buildings.

The area of Cinque Terre in Italy represents one of the best preserved natural sights of the Mediterranean. Human activity has contributed to creating a unique landscape in which the development of typical stone walls is so extensiveC__________. All this,D__________, makes the Cinque Terre an increasingly popular location among Italian and foreign tourists.

Sintra is a jewel set between the mountains and the sea, waiting to be discovered by touristsE__________, luxuriant nature and cosmopolitan cultural offer. Sintra has a wonderful charm that left a deep impression on the soul and work of the writersF__________. Sintra is truly the capital of Romanticism. It is a place to be experienced by everyone!

  1. but showed evidence of an early human housing

  2. to Cinque Terre in Italy and Sintra in Portugal

  3. as to equal that of the famous Great Wall of China

  4. but also a town of parks and flowers, villas and

  5. who want to be lost in its majestic historical heritage

  6. combined with the beauty of a crystal clear sea

  7. who pioneered the Romantic spirit in the eighteenth century














Task 70

Beautiful cities of Italy

The political and cultural centre of Italy is the ‘Eternal City’,Rome. Ever since the Roman Empire, as its capital, Rome has become famous as a centre of European culture. The most striking sights of Rome are, of course, the Colosseum and the Forum. Once the Colosseum was able to receive about 50 thousand spectators,A__________and concert halls. The Pantheon, the old temple of all gods,B__________, is also located in Rome.

The second most important town in Italy is Milan. Milan is the capital of fashion andC__________, exhibitions and conferences. The main attraction of Milan is its Cathedral Square, where the monument to the King Victor Emmanuel II is installed. Theatre fans will not be left disappointed by visiting the Theatre ofLa Scala.

The most popular city among tourists is Venice. The city is unique because it has more than 120 islands,D__________and 400 bridges. Venice has been known for more than fifteen hundred years, and forE__________. The main area of the city is Saint Mark’s Square with the Cathedral of San Marco. One of the most beautiful buildings in Venice is the Palace of Doges. The other famous attraction is the Grand Canal F______.

In addition to this, there are such beautiful cities in Italy as Naples, Turin, Florence, Genoa, Pisa and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily. Allofthemare outstandingplacestovisit.

  1. that is the largest in Venice

  2. which was built in the early I century

  3. that everyone is dreaming about this trip

  4. which is comparable with modern stadiums

  5. which are сonnected by more than 150 canals

  6. the venue for major international festivals

  7. that time it produced a lot of attractions














Task 71

City of fountains

Peterhof is a monument of world architecture and palace and park art. Peterhof includes a palace and park ensemble of the 18-19th centuries,A__________. Peterhof is a city of fountains as it contains 173 fountains and 4 cascadesB__________. Each year up to 3 million people come here to enjoy the splendour of numerous fountains and the unique parks of Peterhof.

The name Peterhof was first mentioned in 1705. It was a coastal manor, close to which the construction of a grand country residence began. The original plan belonged to Peter the Great. After the brilliant victory of Russian troops over the Swedes, security ofSt. Petersburgboth from the landC__________. Since that time, the construction of the Peterhof residence grew immensely in scope.

According to the plan of Peter the Great, on the one hand, Peterhof was meant to be equal in splendour with the most famous royal residences in Europe,D__________ to access the Baltic Sea. Both were successfully done. TheGreatPalacewas built on a natural hill here,E__________. Following the plan of Peter the Great,F__________, the Grand Cascade with the famous Samson fountain was constructed. This is still one of the most spectacular fountains in the world. In 1990 the palaces and parks of Peterhof were included in the list of the world heritage of UNESCO.

  1. and from the sea has been firmly ensured

  2. which is a former royal countryside residence

  3. who designs many royal residences in Europe

  4. and then rebuilt in the baroque style in the 18th century

  5. who wanted to decorate the main entrance with waterfalls

  6. that are located in the park on the coast of the Gulf of Finland

  7. and on the other hand, to become a monument of Russia’s struggle














Task 72

Sights ofSochi

Sochiis unique among other Russian cities because it has many aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenicCaucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts tourists with its vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer,A__________. The famous Caucasian Biosphere Reserve,B__________, lies just north from the city.

Popularity ofSochiamong tourists is largely explained by the beauty of its surroundings. Walking along the river Agura, everyone will admire the nature around,C__________, and amazing waterfalls. From the bridge over the Agura opens a magnificent view to the lowest Agura waterfall. In the shady Agura gorge tourists will feel the gentle coolness,D__________.

AkhunMountain the biggest in the regionhas a beautiful tower on the top. The height of the tower is more than30 metres,E__________ are stunning. The observation platform on the top of the tower gives a chance to take superb pictures of the city. Every year thousands of people visit this stone tower,F__________ the perfect view of the Black Sea coast and theCaucasus Mountains. It is a truly unforgettable experience. Tourists will enjoy visiting all the sights and the resort itself, full of exotic green and the boundless blue of theBlack Sea.

  1. and the views that open from it

  2. which is built on the top to give visitors

  3. when the subtropical resort is almost empty

  4. which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

  5. enjoying the sound of birds singing and waterfalls gurgling

  6. when the city is home to the annual film festival “Kinotavr”

  7. including high cliffs, exotic vegetation, breathtaking canyons














Task 73

Saint Petersburg

A city of palaces and museums, broad avenues and narrow canals,St.Petersburg’s short history is rich in architectural and artistic treasures. Alongside world-famous attractions such as the Hermitage and St.Isaac’s Cathedral, the city has a lot of equally interesting buildingsA__________.St.Petersburgis considered to beRussia’s cultural capital. It reflects the country’s extraordinary fate like no other city.

St.Petersburgis a relatively young city, by both Russian and European standards, asB__________. Despite its short life, the city has a rich history. From the early days of Peter the Great to modern times, the city has always bustled with life and intrigue.

Lying across the delta of theNevaRiver,St.Petersburg, theVeniceof the North, is a cityC__________, some of which are well-known for their unique history. Bridges are an essential part of the city’s architectural make-up. Among the city’s over 500 bridges, there are numerous technological masterpieces. The centre of the city offers vast areas of green space,D__________.

St. Petersburgis a beautiful and fascinating holiday destination and oneE__________. Whether to visit the city in a romantic and snowy Russian winterF__________, visitors will be spellbound by
St. Petersburg’s culture and beauty.

  1. that is built on hundreds of islands

  2. or during the dazzling white nights in summer

  3. it was only founded in 1703 by Tsar Peter the Great

  4. or considering a variety of the trip accommodation offers

  5. that reveal the mysterious and tragic genius of St. Petersburg

  6. of the most intriguing and historically significant cities in Europe

  7. including beautiful historic gardens and extensive leisure parks














Task 74

StateHermitage Museum

The Hermitage is St. Petersburg’s most popular visitor attraction, and one of the world’s largest and most prestigious museums. It is a must-see for all first-time travellers to the city. With over 3 million items in its collection, it also rewards repeat visits,A__________ of the riches on offer here, from Impressionist masterpieces to fascinating Oriental treasures. It was estimatedB__________ on display for just one minute. So many visitors prefer a guided tour to ensureC__________ highlights. Art-lovers, however, may find it more rewarding to seek out for themselves the worksD__________.

The bulk of the Hermitage collection is housed in the Winter Palace,E__________. However, there are a number of other sites that constitute part of the Hermitage, including the recently opened Storage Facility in the north of St. Petersburg. It offers guided tours through some of the museum’s vast stocks. The magnificent General Staff Building opposite the Winter Palace is most famous for its central triumphal arch,F__________ Nevsky Prospekt. The General Staff Building contains a number of unique exhibitions. It includes the Modern European Art, probably the most visited section of the Hermitage with well-known collections of Picasso and Matisse, as well as a wealth of popular Impressionist paintings.

  1. that they are particularly interested in

  2. that they have time to catch all the collection’s

  3. and new-comers can only hope to get a brief taste

  4. which brings pedestrians out on to Palace Squarefrom

  5. that one would need eleven years to view each exhibit

  6. which was the official residence of the Russian emperors

  7. and the exhibition was often visited by military historians














Task 75

Letniy Sad

Letniy Sad (The Summer Garden) is a park ensemble, a monument of landscape art of the 18th century. Letniy Sad is the oldest park in St. Petersburg. The park was founded by Peter I in 1704. The Tsar dreamed of his ownVersaillesand drew its original plan himself. He planned to create a regular, architectural park with accurate layout and straight paths. Prominent architects and gardeners took part in its creation. The park was supposed to become a place of relaxation,A__________.

Letniy Sad is surrounded by water. Natural boundary of the park from the north and east are the Neva andFontankaRivers,B__________.

Peter I brought sculptures fromItalyfor the park and was very proud of them. In the 18th century there were more than two hundred sculptures,C__________, or moved to suburban royal residences and the Hermitage. Now Letniy Sad is decorated with 90 sculptures–copies made of artificial marble.

In May, 2012 Letniy Sad was opened after reconstruction. The reconstruction work had been going on for about three years,D__________ Letniy Sad as it was in the 18th century. Among the new items in Letniy Sad, there is the Archaeological Museum,E__________ during the restoration of the park. Visitors can take a tour of the parkF__________on Sundays.

  1. and restorers have done everything possible to keep

  2. combining the features of urban and suburban estates

  3. which are planned to be the centre of scientific research

  4. which contains interesting objects found by archaeologists

  5. but later many of them were either destroyed in the flood

  6. and enjoy the exhibitions and performances of a brass band

  7. and from the south and west–the Moika River and the Lebyazhiy Canal
















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